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      ACBD3 Interaction with TBC1 Domain 22 Protein Is Differentially Affected by Enteroviral and Kobuviral 3A Protein Binding


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          Despite wide sequence divergence, multiple picornaviruses use the Golgi adaptor acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) binding domain protein 3 (ACBD3/GCP60) to recruit phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase class III beta (PI4KIIIβ/PI4KB), a factor required for viral replication. The molecular basis of this convergent interaction and the cellular function of ACBD3 are not fully understood. Using affinity purification-mass spectrometry, we identified the putative Rab33 GTPase-activating proteins TBC1D22A and TBC1D22B as ACBD3-interacting factors. Fine-scale mapping of binding determinants within ACBD3 revealed that the interaction domains for TBC1D22A/B and PI4KB are identical. Affinity purification confirmed that PI4KB and TBC1D22A/B interactions with ACBD3 are mutually exclusive, suggesting a possible regulatory mechanism for recruitment of PI4KB. The C-terminal Golgi dynamics (GOLD) domain of ACBD3 has been previously shown to bind the 3A replication protein from Aichi virus. We find that the 3A proteins from several additional picornaviruses, including hepatitis A virus, human parechovirus 1, and human klassevirus, demonstrate an interaction with ACBD3 by mammalian two-hybrid assay; however, we also find that the enterovirus and kobuvirus 3A interactions with ACBD3 are functionally distinct with respect to TBC1D22A/B and PI4KB recruitment. These data reinforce the notion that ACBD3 organizes numerous cellular functionalities and that RNA virus replication proteins likely modulate these interactions by more than one mechanism.


          Multiple viruses use the same Golgi protein (ACBD3) to recruit the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase class III beta (PI4KB) in order to replicate. We identify a new binding partner of ACBD3 in the evolutionarily conserved Rab GTPase-activating proteins (RabGAPs) TBC1D22A and -B. Interestingly, TBC1D22A directly competes with PI4KB for binding to the same location of ACBD3 by utilizing a similar binding domain. Different viruses are able to influence this interaction through distinct mechanisms to promote the association of PI4KB with ACBD3. This work informs our knowledge of both the physical interactions of the proteins that help maintain metazoan Golgi structure and how viruses subvert these evolutionarily conserved interactions for their own purposes.

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          Most cited references23

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          Modification of intracellular membrane structures for virus replication

          Key Points Plus-stranded RNA viruses induce large membrane structures that might support the replication of their genomes. Similarly, cytoplasmic replication of poxviruses (large DNA viruses) occurs in associated membranes. These membranes originate from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or endosomes. Membrane vesicles that support viral replication are induced by a number of RNA viruses. Similarly, the poxvirus replication site is surrounded by a double-membraned cisterna that is derived from the ER. Analogies to autophagy have been proposed since the finding that autophagy cellular processes involve the formation of double-membrane vesicles. However, molecular evidence to support this hypothesis is lacking. Membrane association of the viral replication complex is mediated by the presence of one or more viral proteins that contain sequences which associate with, or integrate into, membranes. Replication-competent membranes might contain viral or cellular proteins that contain amphipathic helices, which could mediate the membrane bending that is required to form spherical vesicles. Whereas poxvirus DNA replication occurs inside the ER-enclosed site, for most RNA viruses the topology of replication is not clear. Preliminary results for some RNA viruses suggest that their replication could also occur inside double-membrane vesicles. We speculate that cytoplasmic replication might occur inside sites that are 'enwrapped' by an ER-derived cisterna, and that these cisternae are open to the cytoplasm. Thus, RNA and DNA viruses could use a common mechanism for replication that involves membrane wrapping by cellular cisternal membranes. We propose that three-dimensional analyses using high-resolution electron-microscopy techniques could be useful for addressing this issue. High-throughput small-interfering-RNA screens should also shed light on molecular requirements for virus-induced membrane modifications.
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            Target-decoy search strategy for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

            Accurate and precise methods for estimating incorrect peptide and protein identifications are crucial for effective large-scale proteome analyses by tandem mass spectrometry. The target-decoy search strategy has emerged as a simple, effective tool for generating such estimations. This strategy is based on the premise that obvious, necessarily incorrect "decoy" sequences added to the search space will correspond with incorrect search results that might otherwise be deemed to be correct. With this knowledge, it is possible not only to estimate how many incorrect results are in a final data set but also to use decoy hits to guide the design of filtering criteria that sensitively partition a data set into correct and incorrect identifications.
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              TBC-domain GAPs for Rab GTPases accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a dual-finger mechanism.

              Rab GTPases regulate membrane trafficking by cycling between inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) conformations. The duration of the active state is limited by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which accelerate the slow intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis. Proteins containing TBC (Tre-2, Bub2 and Cdc16) domains are broadly conserved in eukaryotic organisms and function as GAPs for Rab GTPases as well as GTPases that control cytokinesis. An exposed arginine residue is a critical determinant of GAP activity in vitro and in vivo. It has been expected that the catalytic mechanism of TBC domains would parallel that of Ras and Rho family GAPs. Here we report crystallographic, mutational and functional analyses of complexes between Rab GTPases and the TBC domain of Gyp1p. In the crystal structure of a TBC-domain-Rab-GTPase-aluminium fluoride complex, which approximates the transition-state intermediate for GTP hydrolysis, the TBC domain supplies two catalytic residues in trans, an arginine finger analogous to Ras/Rho family GAPs and a glutamine finger that substitutes for the glutamine in the DxxGQ motif of the GTPase. The glutamine from the Rab GTPase does not stabilize the transition state as expected but instead interacts with the TBC domain. Strong conservation of both catalytic fingers indicates that most TBC-domain GAPs may accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a similar dual-finger mechanism.

                Author and article information

                American Society of Microbiology (1752 N St., N.W., Washington, DC )
                9 April 2013
                Mar-Apr 2013
                : 4
                : 2
                Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, California, USA [ a ];
                Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA [ b ];
                Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA [ c ]
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to Joseph L. DeRisi, joe@ 123456derisilab.ucsf.edu .

                Invited Editor Julie Pfeiffer, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Editor Terence Dermody, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

                Copyright © 2013 Greninger et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                March/April 2013

                Life sciences
                Life sciences


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