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      Contribution to the knowledge of the fauna of the long-tongued bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea: Megachilidae, Apidae) in the north of the Arkhangelsk Region

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      Arctic Environmental Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          This article is devoted to a study of the fauna of the long-tongued bees in the north of the Arkhangelsk Region, which is located in the northeast of the European part of Russia, but excludes the Arctic islands. This group includes the bees of the families Megachilidae and Apidae. Forty-four (44) species of bees were found in this region. Most of them (29) are bumblebees (genus Bombus). Fourteen (14) species are megachilid bees (genus Osmia, Coelioxys and Megachile) and one species is Apis mellifera. The largest number of species (39) was recorded in the lower reaches of the Northern Dvina River, due to the long research on this territory. The lowest number of species (16) was recorded in the Mezensky District. In the north of the studied region, the tundra species of B. lapponicus is only presented for the Mezensky District. Many species of bumblebees in the regional fauna belong to the ecological group of the meadow species. These are B. soroeensis, B. ruderarius, B. rupestris and a number of others. They are typical for meadow and ruderal habitats, and are usually not presented in the native taiga habitats. These meadow species are widely represented in the valleys of large rivers, such as the Northern Dvina, the Onega, and the Mezen. Compared to bumblebees, megachilid bees are much rarer in the north of the Arkhangelsk Region. Apis mellifera is presented in the lower reaches of the Northern Dvina River, but here it is rare, compared to the southern part of the Arkhangelsk Region.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology.

          Bees, the largest (>16,000 species) and most important radiation of pollinating insects, originated in early to mid-Cretaceous, roughly in synchrony with the angiosperms (flowering plants). Understanding the diversification of the bees and the coevolutionary history of bees and angiosperms requires a well supported phylogeny of bees (as well as angiosperms). We reconstructed a robust phylogeny of bees at the family and subfamily levels using a data set of five genes (4,299 nucleotide sites) plus morphology (109 characters). The molecular data set included protein coding (elongation factor-1alpha, RNA polymerase II, and LW rhodopsin), as well as ribosomal (28S and 18S) nuclear gene data. Analyses of both the DNA data set and the DNA+morphology data set by parsimony and Bayesian methods yielded a single well supported family-level tree topology that places Melittidae as a paraphyletic group at the base of the phylogeny of bees. This topology ("Melittidae-LT basal") is significantly better than a previously proposed alternative topology ("Colletidae basal") based both on likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results have important implications for understanding the early diversification, historical biogeography, host-plant evolution, and fossil record of bees. The earliest branches of bee phylogeny include lineages that are predominantly host-plant specialists, suggesting that host-plant specificity is an ancestral trait in bees. Our results suggest an African origin for bees, because the earliest branches of the tree include predominantly African lineages. These results also help explain the predominance of Melittidae, Apidae, and Megachilidae among the earliest fossil bees.
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            A review of the non-metallic Osmia (Melanosmia) found in North America, with additional notes on palearctic Melanosmia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

            Abstract We review the six species of non-metallic Osmia (Melanosmia) found in North America, including the description of two new species found in Canada and the northern United States: Osmia (Melanosmia) aquilonaria sp. n., and Osmia (Melanosmia) nearctica sp. n., respectively belonging to the inermis and xanthomelana species groups. We additionally provide keys to the non-metallic Melanosmia found in North America, and update keys to the palearctic Melanosmia based on study of the type specimens of Osmia disjuncta Tkalců, Osmia ephippiata Smith, Osmia ishikawai Hirashima, and Osmia pamirensis Gussakovskij.
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              Phylogeny of the bee family Megachilidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) based on adult morphology

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arctic Environmental Research
                AER
                Pensoft Publishers
                2658-7173
                2541-8416
                November 15 2019
                November 15 2019
                : 19
                : 3
                : 99-105
                Article
                10.3897/issn2541-8416.2019.19.3.99
                © 2019

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