A review of published studies revealed that the Indian mosquito fauna comprises 393 species in 49 genera and 41 subgenera. The subfamily Anophelinae contains 61 species in one genus followed by Culicinae with 332 species in 11 tribes and 48 genera. The tribe Aedini (subfamily Culicinae) contains the highest number of species (176 species in 33 genera and two groups of incertae sedis; i.e., “Aedes” sensu auctorum and “Ochlerotatus” sensu auctorum). With the recent taxonomic changes in tribe Aedini, the Indian mosquito genera have gone up from 22 to 49. Changes to the Indian Aedini fauna subsequent to the reclassification of tribe Aedini are discussed. A total of 31 species are currently recognized in India for transmitting various mosquito-borne agents of human diseases. A checklist for the Indian mosquito species is presented and the need for a comprehensive study is emphasized.