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      In memory of Dr. Nancy M. Petry

      , 1 , * , 2

      Journal of Behavioral Addictions

      Akadémiai Kiadó

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          Abstract

          Dr. Nancy M. Petry passed away due to metastatic breast cancer on July 17, 2018, at the age of 49. Her loss will be regretted by many, both personally and in our scientific field. Nancy received her bachelor’s degree from Randolph-Macon College in Lynchburg, Virginia, and her PhD from Harvard University. She went on to complete a post-doctoral fellowship at University of Vermont, and became a faculty member at University of Connecticut School of Medicine in 1996. Nancy’s highly innovative research quickly distinguished her as a trailblazer in the addictions field, and she became the youngest full professor with tenure in the history of University of Connecticut Medical School at the age of 34. Throughout her career, she was continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health and other agencies, obtaining over $40 million in grant funding. Nancy’s scientific contributions over her 22-year career reshaped the field of addiction both in its conceptualization and treatment. Her work was characterized by scientific rigor, clarity of thought, and a writing style that separated the wheat from the chaff. Her first major contribution was the development of prize-based contingency management, a behavioral substance use disorder intervention that reinforces completion of a target behavior (e.g., drug abstinence). Numerous clinical trials demonstrated that it is a robust and adaptable treatment approach. It is now disseminated and implemented around the world leading to improved treatment outcomes for individuals suffering from various substance use disorders. Another major contribution was in the arena of gambling disorder. She applied her behaviorist theoretical orientation to understand the disorder and its treatment. She conducted several seminal clinical trials, demonstrating efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of gambling disorder. She was also among the first to examine mechanisms of gambling disorder, exploring constructs such as discounting of delayed rewards. Moreover, as a member of the DSM-5 work group on substance-related disorders, she led the effort to reclassify gambling disorder as an addiction. It is the first behavioral addiction recognized within the psychiatric nosology. More recently, she turned her attention to Internet gaming disorder, another behavioral addiction that is likely to be included in the next revision of the DSM-5. Once again, Nancy was ahead of the curve. She convened an international panel to discuss its diagnostic formulation and to review the evidence for its validity. From there, she wasted little time in modifying and adapting a behavioral treatment to test its efficacy in treating the disorder. In summary, Nancy was constantly pushing the field forward, expanding our understanding of what it means to be diagnosed with an addiction and enhancing best practices in its treatment. Below is a list of some of her most influential work selected from over 300 academic publications, including three books. Her continuous pursuit of excellence was felt by those she worked with. No matter how many drafts a manuscript or grant application underwent, she always quickly provided an edit that critically improved the manuscript or clarified an argument. We can only imagine the red ink that would fly over this page! Nancy’s mentorship of young investigators was incredibly effective. Throughout her career, she mentored numerous junior faculty, post-doctoral fellows, and graduate students. She took great care to teach young investigators the key elements of writing, analysis, research design and implementation, and importantly grantsmanship. Many of her past trainees have gone on to publish broadly and receive federal research funding, and for most of us, we owe a great deal of our success to Nancy’s tutelage. Her scientific legacy is continued by those who are expanding her work to better understand and treat those who suffer from addictions. She will be greatly missed, and never forgotten.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls.

          Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p < .05). The results lend external validity to the delay-discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.
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            An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

            For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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              Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

              To present nationally representative data on lifetime prevalence and comorbidity of pathological gambling with other psychiatric disorders and to evaluate sex differences in the strength of the comorbid associations. Data were derived from a large national sample of the United States. Some 43,093 household and group quarters residents age 18 years and older participated in the 2001-2002 survey. Prevalence and associations of lifetime pathological gambling and other lifetime psychiatric disorders are presented. The diagnostic interview was the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Fifteen symptom items operationalized the 10 pathological gambling criteria. The lifetime prevalence rate of pathological gambling was 0.42%. Almost three quarters (73.2%) of pathological gamblers had an alcohol use disorder, 38.1% had a drug use disorder, 60.4% had nicotine dependence, 49.6% had a mood disorder, 41.3% had an anxiety disorder, and 60.8% had a personality disorder. A large majority of the associations between pathological gambling and substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were overwhelmingly positive and significant (p .05). Pathological gambling is highly comorbid with substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders, suggesting that treatment for one condition should involve assessment and possible concomitant treatment for comorbid conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                01 October 2018
                September 2018
                : 7
                : 3
                : 499-500
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University , St. Louis, MO, USA
                [ 2 ]Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Jeremiah Weinstock, PhD; Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, 3700 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108, USA; Phone: +1 314 977 2137; Fax: +1 314 977 1014; E-mail: jeremiah.weinstock@ 123456health.slu.edu
                Article
                10.1556/2006.7.2018.91
                6426365
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 9, Pages: 2
                Categories
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