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      Inhibition of Macrophage Functions by the C-Terminus of Murine S100A9 Is Dependent on B-1 Cells

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          The protein S100A9 plays a key role in the control of inflammatory response. The C-terminus of the murine S100A9 protein (mS100A9p) downregulates the spreading and phagocytic activity of adherent peritoneal cells. Murine peritoneal cells are constituted by macrophages and B-1 cells, and the latter exert an inhibitory effect on macrophage functions by secreting interleukin- (IL-) 10. Here, we investigated the influence of B-1 cells on the inhibitory effect evoked by mS100A9p on macrophages. mS100A9p did not alter spreading and phagocytosis either by peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice deprived of B-1 cells or by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM ϕ). Nevertheless, when BMDM ϕ were cocultivated by direct or indirect contact with B-1 cells treated with mS100A9p, the phagocytosis by BMDM ϕ was decreased, showing that the effect of mS100A9p on macrophages was modulated by B-1 cells and/or their secretory compounds. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of mS100A9p on phagocytosis by adherent peritoneal cells was abolished in cells obtained from IL-10 knockout mice. Taken together, the results show that mS100A9p has no direct inhibitory effect on macrophages; however, mS100A9p modulates B-1 cells, which in turn downregulates macrophages, at least in part, via IL-10. These data contribute to the characterization of S100A9 functions involving B-1 cells in the regulation of the inflammatory process.

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          Most cited references 85

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          Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock.

          To identify new components that regulate the inflammatory cascade during sepsis, we characterized the functions of myeloid-related protein-8 (Mrp8, S100A8) and myeloid-related protein-14 (Mrp14, S100A9), two abundant cytoplasmic proteins of phagocytes. We now demonstrate that mice lacking Mrp8-Mrp14 complexes are protected from endotoxin-induced lethal shock and Escherichia coli-induced abdominal sepsis. Both proteins are released during activation of phagocytes, and Mrp8-Mrp14 complexes amplify the endotoxin-triggered inflammatory responses of phagocytes. Mrp8 is the active component that induces intracellular translocation of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 and activation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB, resulting in elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Using phagocytes expressing a nonfunctional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), HEK293 cells transfected with TLR4, CD14 and MD2, and by surface plasmon resonance studies in vitro, we demonstrate that Mrp8 specifically interacts with the TLR4-MD2 complex, thus representing an endogenous ligand of TLR4. Therefore Mrp8-Mrp14 complexes are new inflammatory components that amplify phagocyte activation during sepsis upstream of TNFalpha-dependent effects.
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            IL-10 inhibits cytokine production by activated macrophages.

            IL-10 inhibits the ability of macrophage but not B cell APC to stimulate cytokine synthesis by Th1 T cell clones. In this study we have examined the direct effects of IL-10 on both macrophage cell lines and normal peritoneal macrophages. LPS (or LPS and IFN-gamma)-induced production of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha proteins was significantly inhibited by IL-10 in two macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, IL-10 appears to be a more potent inhibitor of monokine synthesis than IL-4 when added at similar concentrations. LPS or LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-6, or TNF-alpha mRNA was also inhibited by IL-10 as shown by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction or Northern blot analysis. Inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 secretion by IL-10 was less marked in FACS-purified peritoneal macrophages than in the macrophage cell lines. However, IL-6 production by peritoneal macrophages was enhanced by addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies, implying the presence in these cultures of endogenous IL-10, which results in an intrinsic reduction of monokine synthesis after LPS activation. Consistent with this proposal, LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were shown to directly produce IL-10 detectable by ELISA. Furthermore, IFN-gamma was found to enhance IL-6 production by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and this could be explained by its suppression of IL-10 production by this same population of cells. In addition to its effects on monokine synthesis, IL-10 also induces a significant change in morphology in IFN-gamma-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. The potent action of IL-10 on the macrophage, particularly at the level of monokine production, supports an important role for this cytokine not only in the regulation of T cell responses but also in acute inflammatory responses.
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              S100 proteins expressed in phagocytes: a novel group of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules.

              Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules have been introduced as important proinflammatory factors of innate immunity. One example known for many years to be expressed in cells of myeloid origin are phagocytic S100 proteins, which mediate inflammatory responses and recruit inflammatory cells to sites of tissue damage. An emerging concept of pattern recognition involves the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in sensing not only pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) but also endogenous DAMPs, including S100 proteins. S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 are found at high concentrations in inflamed tissue, where neutrophils and monocytes belong to the most abundant cell types. They exhibit proinflammatory effects in vitro at concentrations found at sites of inflammation in vivo. Although S100A12 binds to RAGE, at least part of the proinflammatory effects of the S100A8/S100A9 complex depend upon interaction with other receptors. Because of the divergent expression patterns, the absence of S100A12 in rodents, the different interaction partners described, and the specific intracellular and extracellular effects reported for these proteins, it is important to differentiate between distinct S100 proteins rather than subsuming them with the term "S100/calgranulins." Analyzing the molecular basis of the specific effects exhibited by these proteins in greater detail bears the potential to elucidate important mechanisms of innate immunity, to establish valid biomarkers of phagocytic inflammation, and eventually to reveal novel targets for innovative anti-inflammatory therapies.

                Author and article information

                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2 September 2014
                : 2014
                1Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Butantan Institute, Avenida Vital Brazil 1500, Butantã, 05503-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                2Laboratory of Neuromodulation and Experimental Pain, Hospital Sírio-Libanês, Rua Coronel Nicolau dos Santos 69, Bela Vista, 01308-060 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                3Discipline of Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of São Paulo, Vila Clementino, 04023-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                4Discipline of Immunology, Centro Universitário São Camilo, Ipiranga, 04263-200 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                5Discipline of Immunology, Universidade Paulista, Vila Clementino, 04026-002 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Helen C. Steel

                Copyright © 2014 Rosana Lima Pagano et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article



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