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      Asthma as a disruption in iron homeostasis

      BioMetals

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Role of viral respiratory infections in asthma and asthma exacerbations

          Summary Viral respiratory tract infections are common and usually selflimited illnesses. For patients at risk of asthma, or with existing asthma, viral respiratory tract infections can have a profound effect on the expression of disease or loss of control. New evidence has shown that wheezing episodes early in life due to human rhinoviruses are a major risk factor for the later diagnosis of asthma at age 6 years. For those with existing asthma, exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity, can need acute care, and can, albeit rarely, result in death. Viral respiratory tract infections, predominantly those caused by human rhinoviruses, are associated with asthma exacerbations. There is also evidence that deficiencies in antiviral activity and the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier could make individuals with asthma more likely to have severe viral respiratory infections of the lower airway, and thus increase the risk of exacerbation. In view of the effect of respiratory viruses on many aspects of asthma, efforts to understand the mechanisms and risk factors by which these airway infections cause changes in airway pathophysiology are a first step towards improved treatment.
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            Ambient air pollution, birth weight and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Low birth weight and preterm birth have a substantial public health impact. Studies examining their association with outdoor air pollution were identified using searches of bibliographic databases and reference lists of relevant papers. Pooled estimates of effect were calculated, heterogeneity was quantified, meta-regression was conducted and publication bias was examined. Sixty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies reported reduced birth weight and increased odds of low birth weight in relation to exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 microns (PM(10) and PM(2.5)). Effect estimates based on entire pregnancy exposure were generally largest. Pooled estimates of decrease in birth weight ranged from 11.4 g (95% confidence interval -6.9-29.7) per 1 ppm CO to 28.1g (11.5-44.8) per 20 ppb NO(2), and pooled odds ratios for low birth weight ranged from 1.05 (0.99-1.12) per 10 μg/m(3) PM(2.5) to 1.10 (1.05-1.15) per 20 μg/m(3) PM(10) based on entire pregnancy exposure. Fewer effect estimates were available for preterm birth and results were mixed. Pooled odds ratios based on 3rd trimester exposures were generally most precise, ranging from 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 ppm CO to 1.06 (1.03-1.11) per 20 μg/m(3) PM(10). Results were less consistent for ozone and sulfur dioxide for all outcomes. Heterogeneity between studies varied widely between pollutants and outcomes, and meta-regression suggested that heterogeneity could be partially explained by methodological differences between studies. While there is a large evidence base which is indicative of associations between CO, NO(2), PM and pregnancy outcome, variation in effects by exposure period and sources of heterogeneity between studies should be further explored. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Prenatal and passive smoke exposure and incidence of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Exposure to passive smoke is a common and avoidable risk factor for wheeze and asthma in children. Substantial growth in the prospective cohort study evidence base provides an opportunity to generate new and more detailed estimates of the magnitude of the effect. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide estimates of the prospective effect of smoking by parents or household members on the risk of wheeze and asthma at different stages of childhood. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and conference abstracts to identify cohort studies of the incidence of asthma or wheeze in relation to exposure to prenatal or postnatal maternal, paternal, or household smoking in subjects aged up to 18 years old. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using random effects model. We identified 79 prospective studies. Exposure to pre- or postnatal passive smoke exposure was associated with a 30% to 70% increased risk of incident wheezing (strongest effect from postnatal maternal smoking on wheeze in children aged ≤2 years, OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.24-2.35, 4 studies) and a 21% to 85% increase in incident asthma (strongest effect from prenatal maternal smoking on asthma in children aged ≤2 years, OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.35-2.53, 5 studies). Building upon previous findings, exposure to passive smoking increases the incidence of wheeze and asthma in children and young people by at least 20%. Preventing parental smoking is crucially important to the prevention of asthma.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BioMetals
                Biometals
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0966-0844
                1572-8773
                October 2016
                September 5 2016
                October 2016
                : 29
                : 5
                : 751-779
                Article
                10.1007/s10534-016-9948-y
                © 2016

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