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      Spectrophotometric determination of nevirapine using tetrathiocyanatocobalt(II) ion as a reagent

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          Abstract

          A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of nevirapine is described. The method is based on the reaction of nevirapine with tetrathiocyanatocobalt(II) ion in buffer of pH 4 to form the corresponding complex. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0.2 - 2.0 µg mL-1 for nevirapine. The optical parameters such as molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection limit and quantitation limit were found to be 1.16× 10(4) Lmol-1cm-1, 2.09 X 10-3 µg cm-2, 0.073 µg mL-1 and 0.222 µg mL-1 respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The statistical evaluation of the method was examined by determining intra-day and inter-day precision. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of nevirapine in pharmaceutical formulations.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Composite end points in randomized trials: there is no free lunch.

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            The rational clinical examination. Does this infant have pneumonia?

            Acute lower respiratory tract illness is common among children seen in primary care. We reviewed the accuracy and precision of the clinical examination in detecting pneumonia in children. Although most cases are viral, it is important to identify bacterial pneumonia to provide appropriate therapy. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE from 1982 to 1995, reviewing reference lists, reviewing a published compendium of studies of the clinical examination, and consulting experts. Observer agreement is good for most signs on the clinical examination. Each study was reviewed by 2 observers and graded for methodologic quality. There is better agreement about signs that can be observed (eg, use of accessory muscles, color, attentiveness; kappa, 0.48-0.66) than signs that require auscultation of the chest (eg, adventitious sounds; kappa, 0.3). Measurements of the respiratory rate are enhanced by counting for 60 seconds. The best individual finding for ruling out pneumonia is the absence of tachypnea. Chest indrawing, and other signs of increased work of breathing, increases the likelihood of pneumonia. If all clinical signs (respiratory rate, auscultation, and work of breathing) are negative, the chest x-ray findings are unlikely to be positive. Studies are needed to assess the value of clinical findings when they are used together.
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              Evaluation of rhesus rotavirus monovalent and tetravalent reassortant vaccines in US children. US Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy Group.

              To determine the safety and relative efficacy of two reassortant rhesus rotavirus vaccines over two rotavirus seasons. A prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-three centers in the United States. A total of 1006 healthy infants between 4 and 26 weeks of age were enrolled, and 898 received three doses of vaccine or placebo. Reactogenicity was determined by comparing the incidence of fever, diarrhea, and/or vomiting for 5 days after each dose of vaccine. Rotavirus IgA and neutralizing antibody to rhesus rotavirus and four rotavirus serotypes were measured in a subset of subjects. Relative efficacy was determined by comparing the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis after three doses of vaccine or placebo over two rotavirus seasons. Adverse reactions were mild and limited to a small but significant increase in the incidence of fever after the first dose of tetravalent but not monovalent vaccine. The relative efficacy against rotavirus disease over the 2 years of observation was 40% (98.3% confidence interval, 7% to 62%) for the monovalent and 57% (98.3% confidence interval, 29% to 74%) for the tetravalent vaccine. In post hoc analyses, the relative efficacy against very severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 73% and 82% for monovalent and tetravalent vaccine recipients, respectively. Also, a 67% and 78% reduction in medical visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis was observed. Both vaccines protected against disease caused by serotype 1 rotavirus, but only the tetravalent vaccine reduced the incidence of disease caused by non-serotype 1 rotavirus infection detected in the second season. It is unclear, however, whether this result represents serotype-specific protection or a difference in the duration of protection. Vaccination with both vaccines was safe and significantly reduced the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis, but only the tetravalent vaccine provided protection against disease caused by non-serotype 1 rotaviruses during the second year of follow-up.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                eq
                Eclética Química
                Eclet. Quím.
                Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP (São Paulo )
                1678-4618
                September 2010
                : 35
                : 3
                : 93-102
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Mangalore University India
                S0100-46702010000300008
                10.1590/S0100-46702010000300008

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

                General chemistry

                Tetrathiocyanatocobalt(II) ion, Nevirapine, Spectrophotometry

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