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      The Effect of Green Tea Gargle Solution on Sore Throat After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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          Abstract

          Background

          Tracheal intubation is an essential method of keeping the airway open in patients under general anesthesia. Sore throat is a prevalent complication after endotracheal intubation.

          Objectives

          The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea gargling on sore throat after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

          Patients and Methods

          This was a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, in which 121 patients who had undergone CABG were divided into two groups: those who gargled distilled water and those who gargled a green tea solution. An hour after extubation, the patients of the intervention group were asked to gargle 30 cc of green tea, and the patients of the control group were asked to gargle 30 cc of distilled water, every 6 hours for up to 24 hours (four times per patient). A sore throat questionnaire was filled out 6, 12, and 24 hours after endotracheal extubation.

          Results

          The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to patient age, sex, body mass index, smoking background, and duration of anesthesia. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of sore throat before the intervention (P = 0.461) and 6 hours after the intervention (P = 0.901). However, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of sore throat 12 hours (P = 0.047) and 24 hours (P < 0.001) after removing the endotracheal tube.

          Conclusions

          Gargling a green tea solution, an anti-inflammatory, natural, and harmless substance, can reduce the pain of sore throat in patients after endotracheal extubation.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Controlled comparison between betamethasone gel and lidocaine jelly applied over tracheal tube to reduce postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice.

          Postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice though minor sequelae after general tracheal anaesthesia can be distressing to the patient. This prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled study compares the incidence of postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice after general tracheal anaesthesia when applying betamethasone gel (betamethasone group) or lidocaine jelly (lidocaine group) on the tracheal tube. One hundred and fifty ASA class I and II patients undergoing elective surgeries under general orotracheal anaesthesia were randomized into three groups: betamethasone gel, lidocaine jelly, and control groups. In the post-anaesthesia care unit, a blinded anaesthesiologist interviewed all patients on postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice at 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after operation. In the first 24 h after surgery, the incidence of postoperative sore throat was 40, 100, and 100%; cough was 6, 40, and 28%; and hoarseness of voice was 4.1, 32.9, and 50%, for the betamethasone, lidocaine and control groups, respectively. The incidence of postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice was significantly lower in the betamethasone group compared with the other two groups (P<0.05). A wide spread application of betamethasone gel on the tracheal tube decreases the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice.
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            Complaints of sore throat after tracheal intubation: a prospective evaluation.

             T Pasch,  B Seifert,  P Biro (2005)
            Sore throat and hoarseness rank, besides pain and nausea, among the most frequent subjective complaints after tracheal intubation for general anaesthesia. Our intention was to determine the incidence of postoperative sore throat from a large sample of patients and thus to identify the most important associated factors. We prospectively followed up 809 adult patients who underwent elective surgical interventions and examined their history, the applied anaesthetic techniques, perioperative course and the occurrence, intensity and duration of postoperative throat complaints. The assignment and professional experience of the involved intubators were also assessed. The influence of a multitude of variables on postoperative throat complaints was statistically analysed. Postoperative sore throat was present in 40% overall being significantly higher in female than in male (44% vs. 33%; P = 0.001). The mean pain intensity in the affected patients (n = 323) was 28+/-12 mm on a visual analogue scale where 0 = no pain and 100 = extreme pain. The average duration was 16+/-11 h. Main factors associated with throat complaints were female sex; history of smoking or lung disease, duration of anaesthesia, postoperative nausea, bloodstain on the endotracheal tube and natural teeth. We could find no influence on the occurrence or intensity of throat complaints by the professional assignment or the length of professional experience of the personnel involved. Postoperative throat complaints frequently arise after tracheal intubation for general anaesthesia in the first 2 postoperative days, but they are of limited intensity and duration.
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              Ketamine gargle for attenuating postoperative sore throat.

               S Ozgen,  U Aypar,  N Celebi (2008)
              Tracheal intubation is a foremost cause of trauma to the airway mucosa, resulting in postoperative sore throat (POST) with reported incidences of 21-65%. We compared the effectiveness of ketamine gargles with placebo in preventing POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty-six, ASA I-II, patients undergoing elective surgery for septorhinoplasty under general anaesthesia were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 23 subjects each: Group C, saline 30 ml; Group K, ketamine 40 mg in saline 30 ml. Patients were asked to gargle this mixture for 30 s, 5 min before induction of anaesthesia. POST was graded at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h after operation on a four-point scale (0-3). POST occurred more frequently in Group C, when compared with Group K, at 0, 2, and 24 h and significantly more patients suffered severe POST in Group C at 4 and 24 h compared with Group K (P<0.05). Ketamine gargle significantly reduced the incidence and severity of POST.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Anesth Pain Med
                Anesth Pain Med
                10.5812/aapm.
                Kowsar
                Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
                Kowsar
                2228-7523
                2228-7531
                09 May 2016
                June 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                [2 ]Student Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                [4 ]Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                [5 ]Department of Anesthesiology, School of Paramedical, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Mohammad Reza Ariaeifar, Student Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Tel: +98-9150065246, Fax: +98-5138784714. E-mail: m.aryaee2012@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.5812/aapm.32108
                5018145
                Copyright © 2016, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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