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      Protective effect of anisodamine in rats with glycerol-induced acute kidney injury

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          Anisodamine is used for the treatment of reperfusion injury in various organs. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and mechanisms of action of anisodamine in promoting recovery from glycerol-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).


          We compared the protective effects of atropine and anisodamine in the rat model of glycerol-induced AKI. We examined signaling pathways involved in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). Renal injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea, and by histologic analysis. Rhabdomyolysis was evaluated by measuring creatine kinase levels, and oxidative stress was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in kidney tissues. Inflammation was assessed by quantifying interleukin 6 (IL-6) and CD45 expression. Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by measuring caspase-3 (including cleaved caspase 3) and RIP3 levels, respectively.


          Glycerol administration resulted in a higher mean histologic damage score, as well as increases in serum creatinine, urea, creatine kinase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), MDA, IL-6, caspase-3 and KIM-1 levels. Furthermore, glycerol reduced kidney tissue SOD activity. All of these markers were significantly improved by anisodamine and atropine. However, the mean histologic damage score and levels of urea, serum creatinine, creatine kinase, ROS and IL-6 were lower in the anisodamine treatment group compared with the atropine treatment group.


          Pretreatment with anisodamine ameliorates renal dysfunction in the rat model of glycerol-induced rhabdomyolytic kidney injury by reducing oxidative stress, the inflammatory response and cell death.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Immune cells in experimental acute kidney injury.

           Hye Jang,  Hamid Rabb (2015)
          Acute kidney injury (AKI) prolongs hospital stay and increases mortality in various clinical settings. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), nephrotoxic agents and infection leading to sepsis are among the major causes of AKI. Inflammatory responses substantially contribute to the overall renal damage in AKI. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are involved in the inflammatory process occurring in post-ischaemic AKI. Proinflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns, hypoxia-inducible factors, adhesion molecules, dysfunction of the renal vascular endothelium, chemokines, cytokines and Toll-like receptors are involved in the activation and recruitment of immune cells into injured kidneys. Immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, such as neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of renal injury after IRI, and some of their subpopulations also participate in the repair process. These immune cells are also involved in the pathogenesis of nephrotoxic AKI. Experimental studies of immune cells in AKI have resulted in improved understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying AKI and will be the foundation for development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. This Review describes what is currently known about the function of the immune system in the pathogenesis and repair of ischaemic and nephrotoxic AKI.
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            Rhabdomyolysis: an evaluation of 475 hospitalized patients.

            Rhabdomyolysis is a common and potentially lethal clinical syndrome that results from acute muscle fiber necrosis with leakage of muscle constituents into blood. Myoglobinuria is the most significant consequence, leading to acute renal failure (ARF) in 15%-33% of patients with rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis occurs from inherited diseases, toxins, muscle compression or overexertion, or inflammatory processes, among other disorders. In some cases, no cause is found. We describe 475 patients from the Johns Hopkins Hospital inpatient records between January 1993 and December 2001 for the following discharge diagnosis codes: myoglobinuria, rhabdomyolysis, myopathy, toxic myopathy, malignant hyperthermia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and polymyositis. Of 1362 patients, 475 patients with an acute neuromuscular illness with serum creatine kinase (CK) more than 5 times the upper limit of normal (>975 IU/L) were included. Patients with recent myocardial infarction or stroke were excluded. The etiology was assigned by chart review. For all, the highest values of serum CK, serum creatinine and urine myoglobin, hemoglobin, and red blood cells were recorded. Forty-one patients had muscle biopsy within at least 2 months from the onset of rhabdomyolysis.Of the 475 patients, 151 were female and 324 were male (median age, 47 yr; range, 4-95 yr). Exogenous toxins were the most common cause of rhabdomyolysis, with illicit drugs, alcohol, and prescribed drugs responsible for 46%. Among the medical drugs, antipsychotics, statins, zidovudine, colchicine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and lithium were the most frequently involved. In 60% of all cases, multiple factors were present. In 11% of all cases, rhabdomyolysis was recurrent. Underlying myopathy or muscle metabolic defects were responsible for 10% of cases, in which there was a high percentage of recurrence, only 1 etiologic factor, and a low incidence of ARF. In 7%, no cause was found. ARF was present in 218 (46%) patients, and 16 died (3.4%). A linear correlation was found between CK and creatinine and between multiple factors and ARF, but there was no correlation between ARF and death or between multiple factors and death. Urine myoglobin detected by dipstick/ultrafiltration was positive in only 19%. Toxins are the most frequent cause of rhabdomyolysis, but in most cases more than 1 etiologic factor was present. Patients using illicit drugs or on prescribed polytherapy are at risk for rhabdomyolysis. The absence of urine myoglobin, by qualitative assay, does not exclude rhabdomyolysis. With appropriate care, death is rare.
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              Receptor interacting protein kinases mediate retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor necrosis and compensate for inhibition of apoptosis.

              Apoptosis has been shown to be a significant form of cell loss in many diseases. Detachment of photoreceptors from the retinal pigment epithelium, as seen in various retinal disorders, causes photoreceptor loss and subsequent vision decline. Although caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways are activated after retinal detachment, caspase inhibition by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD fails to prevent photoreceptor death; thus, we investigated other pathways leading to cell loss. Here, we show that receptor interacting protein (RIP) kinase-mediated necrosis is a significant mode of photoreceptor cell loss in an experimental model of retinal detachment and when caspases are inhibited, RIP-mediated necrosis becomes the predominant form of death. RIP3 expression, a key activator of RIP1 kinase, increased more than 10-fold after retinal detachment. Morphological assessment of detached retinas treated with Z-VAD showed decreased apoptosis but significantly increased necrotic photoreceptor death. RIP1 kinase inhibitor necrostatin-1 or Rip3 deficiency substantially prevented those necrotic changes and reduced oxidative stress and mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor. Thus, RIP kinase-mediated programmed necrosis is a redundant mechanism of photoreceptor death in addition to apoptosis, and simultaneous inhibition of RIP kinases and caspases is essential for effective neuroprotection and may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of retinal disorders.

                Author and article information

                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                17 June 2019
                17 June 2019
                : 20
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4912 1751, GRID grid.488206.0, Hebei Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Research on Cardiocerebrovascular Disease, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, ; Shijiazhuang, 050200 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8727 6165, GRID grid.452440.3, Department of Nephrology, , Bethune International Peace Hospital of PLA, ; Shijiazhuang, 050082 China
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003482, Department of Education of Hebei Province;
                Award ID: QN2015098
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008240, Department of Health of Hebei Province;
                Award ID: Z2015144
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019


                anisodamine, atropine, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis


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