Anisodamine is used for the treatment of reperfusion injury in various organs. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and mechanisms of action of anisodamine in promoting recovery from glycerol-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).
We compared the protective effects of atropine and anisodamine in the rat model of glycerol-induced AKI. We examined signaling pathways involved in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). Renal injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea, and by histologic analysis. Rhabdomyolysis was evaluated by measuring creatine kinase levels, and oxidative stress was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in kidney tissues. Inflammation was assessed by quantifying interleukin 6 (IL-6) and CD45 expression. Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by measuring caspase-3 (including cleaved caspase 3) and RIP3 levels, respectively.
Glycerol administration resulted in a higher mean histologic damage score, as well as increases in serum creatinine, urea, creatine kinase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), MDA, IL-6, caspase-3 and KIM-1 levels. Furthermore, glycerol reduced kidney tissue SOD activity. All of these markers were significantly improved by anisodamine and atropine. However, the mean histologic damage score and levels of urea, serum creatinine, creatine kinase, ROS and IL-6 were lower in the anisodamine treatment group compared with the atropine treatment group.