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Determination of Chloride Content in Cementitious Materials: From Fundamental Aspects to Application of Ag/AgCl Chloride Sensors

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Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

MDPI

Ag/AgCl electrode, chloride sensor, concrete, cement, chloride

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      Abstract

      This paper reports on the advantages and drawbacks of available test methods for the determination of chloride content in cementitious materials in general, and the application of Ag/AgCl chloride sensors in particular. The main factors that affect the reliability of a chloride sensor are presented. The thermodynamic behaviour of silver in the presence or absence of chloride ions is described and kinetic restrictions are addressed. The parameters that can affect the activity of chloride ions in the medium and/or the rate of ion exchange and dissolution/precipitation processes at the sensor’s surface are also considered. In this regard, the contribution of morphology and microstructure of the AgCl layer, binding of chloride ions and the compactness of hydration products around the chloride sensor are highlighted. The important parameters for a reliable sensor’s response are discussed and the possible causes of inaccuracies are evaluated.

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      Most cited references 108

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      Expression and analysis of pore fluids from hardened cement pastes and mortars

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        Thermodynamic modelling of the hydration of Portland cement

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          Chloride threshold values to depassivate reinforcing bars embedded in a standardized OPC mortar

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Department Materials and Environment, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands; d.a.koleva@ 123456tudelft.nl (D.A.K.); k.vanbreugel@ 123456tudelft.nl (K.v.B.)
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: f.pargar@ 123456tudelft.nl ; Tel.: +31-15-27-81742
            Journal
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            sensors
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            MDPI
            1424-8220
            29 October 2017
            November 2017
            : 17
            : 11
            29109382 5713140 10.3390/s17112482 sensors-17-02482
            © 2017 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

            Categories
            Review

            Biomedical engineering

            chloride, ag/agcl electrode, chloride sensor, concrete, cement

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