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      Curcumin ameliorates macrophage infiltration by inhibiting NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines in streptozotocin induced-diabetic nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background

          Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and that the infiltration of macrophages in glomerulus has been implicated in the development of glomerular injury. We hypothesized that the plant polyphenolic compound curcumin, which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effect, would ameliorate macrophage infiltration in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

          Methods

          Diabetes was induced with STZ (55 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection in rats. Three weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with curcumin at 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. The excised kidney was used to assess macrophage infiltration and expression of various inflammatory markers.

          Results

          At 11 weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, increased blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria, along with marked reduction in the body weight. All of these abnormalities were significantly reversed by curcumin. Hyperglycemia induced the degradation of IκBα and NF-κB activation and as a result increased infiltration of macrophages (52%) as well as increased proinflammatory cytokines: TNF-α and IL-1β. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration in the kidneys of diabetic rats, suppressed the expression of above proinflammatory cytokines and degradation of IκBα. In addition, curcumin treatment also markedly decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1 and TGF-β 1 protein expression. Moreover, at nuclear level curcumin inhibited the NF-κB activity.

          Conclusion

          Our results suggested that curcumin treatment protect against the development of DN in rats by reducing macrophage infiltration through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Long-term prevention of renal insufficiency, excess matrix gene expression, and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion by treatment with monoclonal antitransforming growth factor-beta antibody in db/db diabetic mice.

          Emerging evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an important mediator of diabetic nephropathy. We showed previously that short-term treatment with a neutralizing monoclonal anti-TGF-beta antibody (alphaT) in streptozotocin-diabetic mice prevents early changes of renal hypertrophy and increased matrix mRNA. To establish that overactivity of the renal TGF-beta system mediates the functional and structural changes of the more advanced stages of nephropathy, we tested whether chronic administration of alphaT prevents renal insufficiency and glomerulosclerosis in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes that develops overt nephropathy. Diabetic db/db mice and nondiabetic db/m littermates were treated intraperitoneally with alphaT or control IgG, 300 microgram three times per week for 8 wk. Treatment with alphaT, but not with IgG, significantly decreased the plasma TGF-beta1 concentration without decreasing the plasma glucose concentration. The IgG-treated db/db mice developed albuminuria, renal insufficiency, and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion associated with increased renal mRNAs encoding alpha1(IV) collagen and fibronectin. On the other hand, treatment with alphaT completely prevented the increase in plasma creatinine concentration, the decrease in urinary creatinine clearance, and the expansion of mesangial matrix in db/db mice. The increase in renal matrix mRNAs was substantially attenuated, but the excretion of urinary albumin factored for creatinine clearance was not significantly affected by alphaT treatment. We conclude that chronic inhibition of the biologic actions of TGF-beta with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody in db/db mice prevents the glomerulosclerosis and renal insufficiency resulting from type 2 diabetes.
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            Activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B is suppressed by curcumin (diferuloylmethane) [corrected].

            When activated, NF-kappa B, a ubiquitous transcription factor, binds DNA as a heterodimeric complex composed of members of the Rel/NF-kappa B family of polypeptides. Because of its intimate involvement in host defense against disease, this transcription factor is an important target for therapeutic intervention. In the present report we demonstrate that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a known anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic agent, is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation. Treatment of human myeloid ML-1a cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) rapidly activated NF-kappa B, which consists of p50 and p65 subunits, and this activation was inhibited by curcumin. AP-1 binding factors were also found to be down-modulated by curcumin, whereas the Sp1 binding factor was unaffected. Besides TNF, curcumin also blocked phorbol ester- and hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of NF-kappa B. The TNF-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of I kappa B alpha was not observed in curcumin-treated cells; the translocation of p65 subunit to the nucleus was inhibited at the same time. The mechanism of action of curcumin was found to be different from that of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. Our results indicate that curcumin inhibits NF-kappa B activation pathway at a step before I kappa B alpha phosphorylation but after the convergence of various stimuli.
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              Curcumin: getting back to the roots.

              The use of turmeric, derived from the root of the plant Curcuma longa, for treatment of different inflammatory diseases has been described in Ayurveda and in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The active component of turmeric responsible for this activity, curcumin, was identified almost two centuries ago. Modern science has revealed that curcumin mediates its effects by modulation of several important molecular targets, including transcription factors (e.g., NF-kappaB, AP-1, Egr-1, beta-catenin, and PPAR-gamma), enzymes (e.g., COX2, 5-LOX, iNOS, and hemeoxygenase-1), cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1 and p21), cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines), receptors (e.g., EGFR and HER2), and cell surface adhesion molecules. Because it can modulate the expression of these targets, curcumin is now being used to treat cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn's disease, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and other pathologies. Interestingly, 6-gingerol, a natural analog of curcumin derived from the root of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), exhibits a biologic activity profile similar to that of curcumin. The efficacy, pharmacologic safety, and cost effectiveness of curcuminoids prompt us to "get back to our roots."
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutr Metab (Lond)
                Nutrition & Metabolism
                BioMed Central
                1743-7075
                2011
                10 June 2011
                : 8
                : 35
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata City, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
                [3 ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Nephrology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan
                Article
                1743-7075-8-35
                10.1186/1743-7075-8-35
                3123175
                21663638
                Copyright ©2011 Soetikno et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Nutrition & Dietetics

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