Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) has emerged as a gaseous signalling molecule with crucial implications for cardiovascular health. H 2S is involved in many biological functions, including interactions with nitric oxide, activation of molecular signalling cascades, post-translational modifications and redox regulation. Various preclinical and clinical studies have shown that H 2S and its synthesizing enzymes — cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptosulfotransferase — can protect against cardiovascular pathologies, including arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, heart failure, myocardial infarction and ischaemia–reperfusion injury. The bioavailability of H 2S and its metabolites, such as hydropersulfides and polysulfides, is substantially reduced in cardiovascular disease and has been associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in H 2S synthesis enzymes. In this Review, we highlight the role of H 2S, its synthesizing enzymes and metabolites, their roles in the cardiovascular system, and their involvement in cardiovascular disease and associated pathologies. We also discuss the latest clinical findings from the field and outline areas for future study.
Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule with important roles in cardiovascular health and disease. In this Review, Kevil and colleagues discuss the role of H 2S, its synthesizing enzymes and metabolites, their roles in the cardiovascular system, and their involvement in cardiovascular disease and associated pathologies.
Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) has a crucial role in regulating cardiovascular function; reduced bioavailability is associated with cardiovascular pathologies, including arrhythmias, heart failure, ischaemic myocardial dysfunction and peripheral vascular disease.
H 2S and its synthesizing enzymes, including cystathionine γ-lyase, can protect against atherosclerosis and cardiac ischaemia–reperfusion injury.
H 2S regulates various pathophysiological functions via interaction with nitric oxide, activation of molecular signalling cascades, post-translational modification of proteins and control of redox-dependent responses.
Findings from clinical studies demonstrate that H 2S and its metabolites, including hydropersulfides and polysulfides, have substantial therapeutic potential for various forms of cardiovascular disease.