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      Adaptive Microsensor Systems

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      Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          We provide a broad review of approaches for developing chemosensor systems whose operating parameters can adapt in response to environmental changes or application needs. Adaptation may take place at the instrumentation level (e.g., tunable sensors) and at the data-analysis level (e.g., adaptive classifiers). We discuss several strategies that provide tunability at the device level: modulation of internal sensing parameters, such as frequencies and operation voltages; variation of external parameters, such as exposure times and catalysts; and development of compact microanalysis systems with multiple tuning options. At the data-analysis level, we consider adaptive filters for change, interference, and drift rejection; pattern classifiers that can adapt to changes in the statistical properties of training data; and active-sensing techniques that can tune sensing parameters in real time. We conclude with a discussion of future opportunities for adaptive sensing in wireless distributed sensor systems.

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          Most cited references 129

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          A Decision-Theoretic Generalization of On-Line Learning and an Application to Boosting

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            Quantum cascade laser.

            A semiconductor injection laser that differs in a fundamental way from diode lasers has been demonstrated. It is built out of quantum semiconductor structures that were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and designed by band structure engineering. Electrons streaming down a potential staircase sequentially emit photons at the steps. The steps consist of coupled quantum wells in which population inversion between discrete conduction band excited states is achieved by control of tunneling. A strong narrowing of the emission spectrum, above threshold, provides direct evidence of laser action at a wavelength of 4.2 micrometers with peak powers in excess of 8 milliwatts in pulsed operation. In quantum cascade lasers, the wavelength, entirely determined by quantum confinement, can be tailored from the mid-infrared to the submillimeter wave region in the same heterostructure material.
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              Combining labeled and unlabeled data with co-training

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843; email:
                [2 ]Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zürich, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland; email:
                Journal
                Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
                Annual Rev. Anal. Chem.
                Annual Reviews
                1936-1327
                1936-1335
                June 2010
                June 2010
                : 3
                : 1
                : 255-276
                10.1146/annurev.anchem.111808.073620
                © 2010

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