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      In vitro Preparation and Evaluation of Sustained-Release Microcapsules of Salvianolic Acid


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          This study aims to investigate the preparation of sustained-release microcapsules of salvianolic acid.


          The stability of salvianolic acid microcapsules was improved, and the time of action was prolonged in the present study. This was prepared using the spray-drying method, with chitosan as the carrier. In the preparation process, the prescription and process were optimized by L9 (34) using an orthogonal design, with yield and drug loading as indexes, in order to obtain optimum conditions.


          The optimal process and prescription for the preparation of salvianolic acid microcapsules were found to be as follows: mass concentration of chitosan, 1.5%; mass ratio of salvianolic acid to chitosan, 1:3; inlet air temperature, 190°C; and peristaltic pump speed, 300 mL·h-1. The surface of the microcapsules was round, the drug loading was 25.99% ± 2.14%, the yield was 51.88% ± 2.84%, the entrapment efficiency was 86.21% ± 2.89%, and the average particle size was 105.6 ± 2.56 nm. The microcapsules in vitro had certain sustained release characteristics. The internally fitted first-order release model equation was ln(1-Q) = −0.236 t + 4.591 7, r = 0.920. In addition, the results of differential scanning calorimetry show that the properties of salvianolic acid were not changed by the microcapsules.


          Sustained-release microcapsules of salvianolic acid can be successfully prepared by adopting marine polysaccharide as a carrier.

          Most cited references20

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          Chitin and Chitosan Preparation from Marine Sources. Structure, Properties and Applications

          This review describes the most common methods for recovery of chitin from marine organisms. In depth, both enzymatic and chemical treatments for the step of deproteinization are compared, as well as different conditions for demineralization. The conditions of chitosan preparation are also discussed, since they significantly impact the synthesis of chitosan with varying degree of acetylation (DA) and molecular weight (MW). In addition, the main characterization techniques applied for chitin and chitosan are recalled, pointing out the role of their solubility in relation with the chemical structure (mainly the acetyl group distribution along the backbone). Biological activities are also presented, such as: antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant. Interestingly, the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity is demonstrated for chitosan molecules with different DA and MW and homogeneous distribution of acetyl groups for the first time. In the end, several selected pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented, in which chitin and chitosan are recognized as new biomaterials taking advantage of their biocompatibility and biodegradability.
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            Salvia miltiorrhiza: A Potential Red Light to the Development of Cardiovascular 

            Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China and other Asia countries. Here, we summarize literatures of the historical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza, its use in current clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological findings by consulting Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, and the Web of Science Databases. Since 2000, 39 clinical trials have been identified that used S. miltiorrhiza in TCM prescriptions alone or with other herbs for the treatment of patients with CVD. More than 200 individual compounds have been isolated and characterized from S. miltiorrhiza, which exhibited various pharmacological activities targeting different pathways for the treatment of CVD in various animal and cell models. The isolated compounds may provide new perspectives in alternative treatment regimes and reveal novel chemical scaffolds for the development of anti-CVD drugs. Meanwhile, there are also some rising concerns of the potential side effects and drug-drug interactions of this plant. The insights gained from this study will help us to better understanding of the actions of this herb for management of cardiovascular disorders. As an herb of red root, S. miltiorrhiza will act as a potential red light to prevent the development of CVD.
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              Current Advances in Chitosan Nanoparticles Based Drug Delivery and Targeting

              Nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to be potential targeted and controlled release drug delivery systems. Various drugs can be loaded in the NPs to achieve targeted delivery. Chitosan NPs being biodegradable, biocompatible, less toxic and easy to prepare, are an effective and potential tool for drug delivery. Chitosan is natural biopolymer which can be easily functionalized to obtain the desired targeted results and is also approved by GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration [US FDA]). Various methods for preparation of chitosan NPs include, ionic cross-linking, covalent cross-linking, reverse micellar method, precipitation and emulsion-droplet coalescence method. Chitosan NPs are found to have plethora of applications in drug delivery diagnosis and other biological applications. The key applications include ocular drug delivery, per-oral delivery, pulmonary drug delivery, nasal drug delivery, mucosal drug delivery, gene delivery, buccal drug delivery, vaccine delivery, vaginal drug delivery and cancer therapy. The present review describes the formation of chitosan, synthesis of chitosan NPs and their various applications in drug delivery.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                21 April 2021
                : 15
                : 1623-1631
                [1 ]Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica , Chongqing, 400065, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine , Xianyang, 712046, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy College, Southwest University , Chongqing, 400715, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rong-Ping Yang Department of Pharmacy College, Southwest University , No. 2 of Tiansheng Street, Beibei District, Chongqing, 400715, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 023-68251225Fax +86 023-68251225 Email yangrongping1119@163.com
                © 2021 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 26 November 2020
                : 19 March 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, References: 20, Pages: 9
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                salvianolic acid sustained-release microcapsule,marine polysaccharides,chitosan,salvia miltiorrhiza,salvianolic acid b


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