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      Climate change mitigation opportunities based on carbon footprint estimates of dietary patterns in Peru

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          Abstract

          Food consumption accounts for an important proportion of the world GHG emissions per capita. Previous studies have delved into the nature of dietary patterns, showing that GHG reductions can be achieved in diets if certain foods are consumed rather than other, more GHG intensive products. For instance, vegetarian and low-meat diets have proved to be less carbon intensive than diets that are based on ruminant meat. These environmental patterns, increasingly analyzed in developed nations, are yet to be assessed in countries liked Peru where food purchase represents a relatively high percentage of the average household expenditure, ranging from 38% to 51% of the same. Therefore, food consumption can be identified as a potential way to reduce GHG emissions in Peru. However, the Peruvian government lacks a specific strategy to mitigate emissions in this sector, despite the recent ratification of the Paris Accord. In view of this, the main objective of this study is to analyze the environmental impacts of a set of 47 Peruvian food diet profiles, including geographical and socioeconomic scenarios. In order to do this, Life Cycle Assessment was used as the methodological framework to obtain the overall impacts of the components in the dietary patterns observed and primary data linked to the composition of diets were collected from the Peruvian National Institute for Statistics (INEI). Life cycle inventories for the different products that are part of the Peruvian diet were obtained from a set of previous scientific articles and reports regarding food production. Results were computed using the IPCC 2013 assessment method to estimate GHG emissions. Despite variations in GHG emissions from a geographical perspective, no significant differences were observed between cities located in the three Peruvian natural regions (i.e., coast, Andes and Amazon basin). In contrast, there appears to be a strong, positive correlation between GHG emissions and social expenditure or academic status. When compared to GHG emissions computed in the literature for developed nations, where the average caloric intake is substantially higher, diet-related emissions in Peru were in the low range. Our results could be used as a baseline for policy support to align nutritional and health policies in Peru with the need to reduce the environmental impacts linked to food production.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030.

          Investments aimed at improving agricultural adaptation to climate change inevitably favor some crops and regions over others. An analysis of climate risks for crops in 12 food-insecure regions was conducted to identify adaptation priorities, based on statistical crop models and climate projections for 2030 from 20 general circulation models. Results indicate South Asia and Southern Africa as two regions that, without sufficient adaptation measures, will likely suffer negative impacts on several crops that are important to large food-insecure human populations. We also find that uncertainties vary widely by crop, and therefore priorities will depend on the risk attitudes of investment institutions.
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            Climate change impacts on global food security.

            Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security.
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              Impacts of roads and linear clearings on tropical forests.

              Linear infrastructure such as roads, highways, power lines and gas lines are omnipresent features of human activity and are rapidly expanding in the tropics. Tropical species are especially vulnerable to such infrastructure because they include many ecological specialists that avoid even narrow (<30-m wide) clearings and forest edges, as well as other species that are susceptible to road kill, predation or hunting by humans near roads. In addition, roads have a major role in opening up forested tropical regions to destructive colonization and exploitation. Here, we synthesize existing research on the impacts of roads and other linear clearings on tropical rainforests, and assert that such impacts are often qualitatively and quantitatively different in tropical forests than in other ecosystems. We also highlight practical measures to reduce the negative impacts of roads and other linear infrastructure on tropical species.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                16 November 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Peruvian LCA Network, Department of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, San Miguel, Lima, Peru
                [2 ] Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
                TNO, NETHERLANDS
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-26968
                10.1371/journal.pone.0188182
                5690589
                29145461
                © 2017 Vázquez-Rowe et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Figures: 4, Tables: 7, Pages: 25
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
                Award ID: N°332 WALAYA Project
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
                Award ID: N°332 WALAYA Project
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: CONCYTEC - Peru
                Award ID: Masters Scholarship
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008425, Consellería de Cultura, Educación e Ordenación Universitaria, Xunta de Galicia;
                Award ID: I2C Bolsas posrdoctorais
                Award Recipient :
                The authors wish to thank the Dirección General de Investigación from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) for the financial support of the WALAYA project. The project was won in a competitive call (CAP 2016) and was funded with 50,000 Peruvian soles for a one year period. Gustavo Larrea-Gallegos and Alessandro Gilardino were partially financed in 2016 with funding from the project. BSc Gustavo Larrea-Gallegos wishes to thank the Peruvian Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica (CONCYTEC) for financial support in the form of a scholarship for his master studies starting in March 2017. Dr. Pedro Villanueva-Rey wishes to thank the Galician Government for financial support (I2C postdoctoral student grants programme). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Peru
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Processes
                Food Consumption
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Physiological Processes
                Food Consumption
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Animal Products
                Meat
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Meat
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Meat
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Environmental Impacts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Poultry
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Public and Occupational Health
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
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                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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