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      ‘Face’ and psychological processes of laid-off workers in transitional China

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          Objective: The objective was to explore the psychological experiences of laid-off workers in contemporary transitional China and to formulate a theoretical model of these.

          Methods: In-depth interviews of 26 laid-off workers were conducted and analysed using grounded theory techniques.

          Results: Four themes underline the psychological processes of these laid-off workers – feeling of loss, feeling of physical pain, feeling of fatalism, and final acceptance. These are characterized by Chinese culture and its philosophy – feeling of loss is dominated by their loss of face ( diu mianzi), physical pain is a somatization of their mental painfulness, their fatalism is traced back to the Chinese ancient theocratic concept of Tian Ming, and their acceptance of reality to their final making face ( zheng mianzi) is sourced from both Confucianism and Daoism.

          Conclusion: The psychological experience of laid-off workers (or unemployed workers) is likely to have varied manifestations in different cultural contexts. The psychological processes of Chinese laid-off workers (or unemployed workers) might be different from those of laid-off workers in Western countries. A therapeutic intervention to cater for the needs of laid-off workers derived from the four themes might be effective.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Constructing grounded theory—A practical guide through qualitative analysis

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            InterViews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing

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              Grounded theory: an exploration of process and procedure.

              Grounded theory, as an evolving qualitative research method, is a product of its history as well as of its epistemology. Within the literature, there have been a number of discussions focusing on the differences between Glaser's (1978, 1992) and Strauss's (1987, 1990) versions of grounded theory. The purpose of this article is to add a level of depth and breadth to this discussion through specifically exploring the Glaser-Strauss debate by comparing the data analysis processes and procedures advocated by Glaser and by Strauss. To accomplish this task, the authors present the article in two sections. First, they provide relevant background information on grounded theory as a research method. Second, they pursue a more in-depth discussion of the positions of Glaser, using Glaser's work, and Strauss, using Strauss's and Strauss and Corbin's (1990) work, regarding the different phases of data analysis, specifically addressing the coding procedures, verification, and the issue of forcing versus emergence.

                Author and article information

                Family Medicine and Community Health
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                July 2016
                August 2016
                : 4
                : 3
                : 51-63
                1Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, Australia
                2James Cook University Singapore, Singapore
                3Department of Clinical Psychology, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Kenneth Mark Greenwood, BBSc(Hons), DipCompSc, PhD, DPsych, Dean of Research & Professor of Psychology, James Cook University Singapore, 149 Sims Drive, Singapore 387380; and Department of Clinical Psychology, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100088, China, Tel.: +65-6709-3888, Fax: +65-6709-3889, E-mail: ken.greenwood@ 123456jcu.edu.au
                Copyright © 2016 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
                China Focus


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