Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) encodes a 2527-amino acid (aa) protein composed of multiple functional domains, including a Ras of complex proteins (ROC)-type GTP-binding domain, a carboxyl terminal of ROC (COR) domain, a serine/threonine protein kinase domain, and several repeat domains. LRRK2 is genetically involved in the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease (FPD). Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, manifesting progressive motor dysfunction. PD is pathologically characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the presence of intracellular inclusion bodies called Lewy bodies (LB) in the remaining neurons. As the most frequent PD-causing mutation in LRRK2, G2019S, increases the kinase activity of LRRK2, an abnormal increase in LRRK2 kinase activity is believed to contribute to PD pathology; however, the precise biological functions of LRRK2 involved in PD pathogenesis remain unknown. Although biochemical studies have discovered several substrate proteins of LRRK2 including Rab GTPases and tau, little is known about whether excess phosphorylation of these substrates is the cause of the neurodegeneration in PD. In this review, we summarize latest findings regarding the physiological and pathological functions of LRRK2, and discuss the possible molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration caused by LRRK2 and its substrates.