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      Physiological and pathological functions of LRRK2: implications from substrate proteins

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          Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) encodes a 2527-amino acid (aa) protein composed of multiple functional domains, including a Ras of complex proteins (ROC)-type GTP-binding domain, a carboxyl terminal of ROC (COR) domain, a serine/threonine protein kinase domain, and several repeat domains. LRRK2 is genetically involved in the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease (FPD). Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, manifesting progressive motor dysfunction. PD is pathologically characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the presence of intracellular inclusion bodies called Lewy bodies (LB) in the remaining neurons. As the most frequent PD-causing mutation in LRRK2, G2019S, increases the kinase activity of LRRK2, an abnormal increase in LRRK2 kinase activity is believed to contribute to PD pathology; however, the precise biological functions of LRRK2 involved in PD pathogenesis remain unknown. Although biochemical studies have discovered several substrate proteins of LRRK2 including Rab GTPases and tau, little is known about whether excess phosphorylation of these substrates is the cause of the neurodegeneration in PD. In this review, we summarize latest findings regarding the physiological and pathological functions of LRRK2, and discuss the possible molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration caused by LRRK2 and its substrates.

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          Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci.

          We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in 15,694 cases, 14,026 controls and 414 parent-offspring trios. We identified 30 new susceptibility loci meeting genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸). A series of in silico analyses highlighted particular genes within these loci and, together with manual curation, implicated functionally interesting candidate genes including SMAD3, ERAP2, IL10, IL2RA, TYK2, FUT2, DNMT3A, DENND1B, BACH2 and TAGAP. Combined with previously confirmed loci, these results identify 71 distinct loci with genome-wide significant evidence for association with Crohn's disease.
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            Rab GTPases as coordinators of vesicle traffic.

            Membrane trafficking between organelles by vesiculotubular carriers is fundamental to the existence of eukaryotic cells. Central in ensuring that cargoes are delivered to their correct destinations are the Rab GTPases, a large family of small GTPases that control membrane identity and vesicle budding, uncoating, motility and fusion through the recruitment of effector proteins, such as sorting adaptors, tethering factors, kinases, phosphatases and motors. Crosstalk between multiple Rab GTPases through shared effectors, or through effectors that recruit selective Rab activators, ensures the spatiotemporal regulation of vesicle traffic. Functional impairments of Rab pathways are associated with diseases, such as immunodeficiencies, cancer and neurological disorders.
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              Genome-wide association defines more than 30 distinct susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease.

              Several risk factors for Crohn's disease have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies. To advance gene discovery further, we combined data from three studies on Crohn's disease (a total of 3,230 cases and 4,829 controls) and carried out replication in 3,664 independent cases with a mixture of population-based and family-based controls. The results strongly confirm 11 previously reported loci and provide genome-wide significant evidence for 21 additional loci, including the regions containing STAT3, JAK2, ICOSLG, CDKAL1 and ITLN1. The expanded molecular understanding of the basis of this disease offers promise for informed therapeutic development.

                Author and article information

                Neuronal Signal.
                Neuronal Signaling
                Neuronal Signal.
                Portland Press Ltd.
                25 September 2018
                21 December 2018
                10 October 2018
                : 2
                : 4
                [1 ]Laboratory of Neuropathology and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
                [2 ]Laboratory of Brain and Neurological Disorders, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Genta Ito ( genta@ ) or Taisuke Tomita ( taisuke@ )

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2018 The Author(s).

                This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).

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