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      Venular basement membranes contain specific matrix protein low expression regions that act as exit points for emigrating neutrophils

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          The mechanism of leukocyte migration through venular walls in vivo is largely unknown. By using immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy, the present study demonstrates the existence of regions within the walls of unstimulated murine cremasteric venules where expression of key vascular basement membrane (BM) constituents, laminin 10, collagen IV, and nidogen-2 (but not perlecan) are considerably lower (<60%) than the average expression detected in the same vessel. These sites were closely associated with gaps between pericytes and were preferentially used by migrating neutrophils during their passage through cytokine-stimulated venules. Although neutrophil transmigration did not alter the number/unit area of extracellular matrix protein low expression sites, the size of these regions was enlarged and their protein content was reduced in interleukin-1β–stimulated venules. These effects were entirely dependent on the presence of neutrophils and appeared to involve neutrophil-derived serine proteases. Furthermore, evidence was obtained indicating that transmigrating neutrophils carry laminins on their cell surface in vivo. Collectively, through identification of regions of low extracellular matrix protein localization that define the preferred route for transmigrating neutrophils, we have identified a plausible mechanism by which neutrophils penetrate the vascular BM without causing a gross disruption to its intricate structure.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Endothelial cell-cell junctions: happy together.

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            Pericytes in the microvasculature.

            Pericytes, also known as Rouget cells or mural cells, are associated abluminally with all vascular capillaries and post-capillary venules. Differences in pericyte morphology and distribution among vascular beds suggest tissue-specific functions. Based on their location and their complement of muscle cytoskeletal proteins, pericytes have been proposed to play a role in the regulation of blood flow. In vitro studies demonstrating the contractile ability of pericytes support this concept. Pericytes have also been suggested to be oligopotential and have been reported to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and phagocytes. The mechanisms involved in vessel formation have yet to be elucidated but observations indicate that the primordial endothelium can recruit undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and direct their differentiation into pericytes in microvessels, and smooth muscle cells in large vessels. Communication between endothelial cells and pericytes, or their precursors, may take many forms. Soluble factors such as platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factors-beta are likely to be involved. In addition, physical contact mediated by cell adhesion molecules, integrins and gap junctions appear to contribute to the control of vascular growth and function. Development of culture methods has allowed some functions of pericytes to be directly examined. Co-culture of pericytes with endothelial cells leads to the activation of transforming growth factor-beta, which in turn influences the growth and differentiation of the vascular cells. Finally, the pericyte has been implicated in the development of a variety of pathologies including hypertension, multiple sclerosis, diabetic microangiopathy and tumor vascularization.
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              Leukocyte-endothelial-cell interactions in leukocyte transmigration and the inflammatory response.

              Both the innate and adaptive immune responses are dependent on the migration of leukocytes across endothelial cells. The process of diapedesis, in which the leukocyte crawls between tightly apposed endothelial cells, is a unique and complex process. Several molecules concentrated at the junctions of endothelial cells, originally described as having a role in holding the endothelial monolayer together, have also been shown to have a role in the emigration of leukocytes. Several mechanisms have been proposed for 'loosening' the junctions between endothelial cells to enable leukocyte passage. These leukocyte-endothelial-cell adhesion molecules are probably involved in regulating the signaling as well as the adhesion events of diapedesis. In addition, this Review introduces a new and unified nomenclature for the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                12 June 2006
                : 203
                : 6
                : 1519-1532
                [1 ]Cardiovascular Medicine Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute and [2 ]Renal Section, Division of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London W12 ONN, England, UK
                [3 ]Institute of Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry Muenster, University Waldeyerstrasse, 15 48149 Muenster, Germany
                Author notes

                CORRESPONDENCE Sussan Nourshargh: s.nourshargh@

                Copyright © 2006, The Rockefeller University Press



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