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      Original endoscopic orbital decompression of lateral wall through hairline approach for Graves’ ophthalmopathy: an innovation of balanced orbital decompression

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          Abstract

          Background

          Orbital decompression is an important surgical procedure for treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), especially in women. It is reasonable for balanced orbital decompression of the lateral and medial wall. Various surgical approaches, including endoscopic transnasal surgery for medial wall and eye-side skin incision surgery for lateral wall, are being used nowadays, but many of them lack the validity, safety, or cosmetic effect.

          Patients and methods

          Endoscopic orbital decompression of lateral wall through hairline approach and decompression of medial wall via endoscopic transnasal surgery was done to achieve a balanced orbital decompression, aiming to improve the appearance of proptosis and create conditions for possible strabismus and eyelid surgery afterward. From January 29, 2016 to February 14, 2017, this surgery was performed on 41 orbits in 38 patients with GO, all of which were at inactive stage of disease. Just before surgery and at least 3 months after surgery, Hertel’s ophthalmostatometer and computed tomography (CT) were used to check proptosis and questionnaires of GO quality of life (QOL) were completed.

          Findings

          The postoperative retroversion of eyeball was 4.18±1.11 mm (Hertel’s ophthalmostatometer) and 4.17±1.14 mm (CT method). The patients’ QOL was significantly improved, especially the change in appearance without facial scar. The only postoperative complication was local soft tissue depression at temporal region. Obvious depression occurred in four cases (9.76%), which can be repaired by autologous fat filling.

          Interpretation

          This surgery is effective, safe, and cosmetic. Effective balanced orbital decompression can be achieved by using this original and innovative surgery method. The whole manipulation is safe and controllable under endoscope. The postoperative scar of endoscopic surgery through hairline approach is covered by hair and the anatomic structure of anterior orbit is not impacted.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Epidemiology and prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

          Graves' ophthalmopathy is clinically relevant in approximately 50% of patients with Graves' disease, severe forms affecting 3%-5% of patients. Two age peaks of incidence are observed in the fifth and seventh decades of life, with slight differences between women and men. The disease is more frequent in women than in men, although the female-to-male ratio is only 1:4 in severe forms of eye disease. The natural history of Graves' ophthalmopathy is incompletely defined, but in many instances, especially in mild forms, the disease may remit or improve spontaneously. The onset of the ophthalmopathy is in most cases concomitant with the onset of hyperthyroidism, but eye disease may precede or follow hyperthyroidism. Cigarette smoking plays an important role in the occurrence of the ophthalmopathy, and is also associated with a higher degree of disease severity and a lower effectiveness of its medical treatment. Primary prevention (i.e., avoidance of the occurrence of the ophthalmopathy) is presently not feasible, but smoking withdrawal in relatives of patients with Graves' disease might be important. In terms of secondary prevention (i.e., avoidance of progression of subclinical eye disease into overt and severe ophthalmopathy) in addition to refraining from smoking, early and accurate control of thyroid dysfunction (both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism), as well as early diagnosis and treatment of mild eye disease are important. As to the role that management of hyperthyroidism may play in the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy, while antithyroid drugs and thyroidectomy are not disease-modifying treatments, radioiodine therapy causes a progression of the ophthalmopathy in approximately 15% of patients, especially high-risk patients, who smoke, have severe hyperthyroidism or uncontrolled hypothyroidism, high levels of thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor antibody, or preexisting eye disease. However, the risk of radioiodine-associated progression of the opthalmopathy can be eliminated by concomitant treatment with middle-dose glucocorticoids. In terms of tertiary prevention (i.e., avoidance of deterioration and complications of overt disease) early immunosuppressive treatment or orbital decompression, as appropriate, are essential tools. Smoking withdrawal may increase the effectiveness of immunosuppressive treatment.
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            Management of Graves' ophthalmopathy: reality and perspectives.

            Graves' ophthalmopathy is an debilitating disease impairing the quality of life of affected individuals. Despite recent progress in the understanding of its pathogenesis, treatment is often not satisfactory. In mild cases, local therapeutic measures (artificial tears and ointments, sunglasses, nocturnal taping of the eyes, prisms) can control symptoms and signs. In severe forms of the disease (3-5%), aggressive measures are required. If the disease is active, high-dose glucocorticoids and/or orbital radiotherapy, or orbital decompression represent the mainstay of treatment. If the disease is severe but inactive, orbital decompression is preferred. Novel treatments such as somatostatin analogs or intravenous immunoglobulins are under evaluation. Rehabilitative (extraocular muscle or eyelid) surgery is often needed after treatment and inactivation of eye disease. Correction of both hyper- and hypothyroidism is crucial for the ophthalmopathy. Antithyroid drugs and thyroidectomy do not influence the course of the ophthalmopathy, whereas radioiodine treatment may cause the progression of preexisting ophthalmopathy, especially in smokers. The exacerbation, however, is prevented by glucocorticoids. In addition, thyroid ablation may prove beneficial for the ophthalmopathy in view of the pathogenetic model relating eye disease to autoimmune reactions directed against antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit.
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              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Prevalence and natural history of Graves' orbitopathy in a large series of patients with newly diagnosed graves' hyperthyroidism seen at a single center.

              The prevalence and natural history of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are poorly documented.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                26 March 2018
                : 14
                : 607-616
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Minimal Invasive Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Research Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                [3 ]E.N.T Department, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                [4 ]Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wei Xiong, Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Research Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, No 139 middle Renmin Road, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China, Tel +86 0731 8529 5888, Email weixiong420@ 123456csu.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                tcrm-14-607
                10.2147/TCRM.S153733
                5875403
                © 2018 Gong et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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