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      Primary central nervous system amelanotic melanoma in a Hispanic male: Case report

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Summary

          Background

          Primary melanotic neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are uncommon; amelanotic melanomas in this region are extremely rare. Very few cases of amelanotic variation of primary melanoma in the CNS were reported on. General guidelines or recommendations to establish this diagnosis do not exist.

          Case Report

          A sixty-year-old male Hispanic patient presented with a 7-day history of numbness and dizziness. Initial laboratory work-up and physical examination were inconclusive. Cerebral radiological imaging showed a left frontal lesion. Further work-up after clinical deterioration revealed an increase in the lesion size consistent with hemorrhage and changes in T1WI. Biopsy and immunochemistry demonstrated the presence of amelanotic melanoma in the CNS without evidence of another primary lesion.

          Conclusions

          Primary amelanotic melanoma of the CNS represents a challenge, clinically and diagnostically. Magnetic resonance imaging can be helpful in early stages. Final diagnosis is established with immunohistochemical testing. Physicians should be aware of the existence of this rare manifestation and difficulties faced while building this diagnosis.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Demographics, prognosis, and therapy in 702 patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma.

          Brain metastases are a common and devastating complication in patients with malignant melanoma. Therapeutic options for these patients are limited, and the prognosis is usually poor. A retrospective review of 6953 patients with melanoma treated at a single institution was undertaken to identify demographic factors associated with the development of clinically significant brain metastases in 702 of these patients and to determine the factors influencing the prognosis of this population to permit more informed recommendations regarding surgical therapy. Factors found to be associated with the development of brain metastases included male gender, primary lesions located on mucosal surfaces or on the skin of the trunk or head and neck, thick or ulcerated primary lesions, and histological findings of acral lentiginous or nodular lesions. The overall median survival time of all patients with brain metastases was 113.2 days, and these metastases contributed to the death of 94.5% of the patients in this group. Patients with primary lesions located in the head or neck region had a significantly shorter survival time relative to other patients with brain metastases, whereas patients with a single brain metastasis, patients without lung or multiple other visceral metastases, and patients whose initial presentation with melanoma included a brain metastasis had a significantly better prognosis. The small group of patients who survived for more than 3 years was characterized by the presence of a surgically treated, single brain metastasis in the absence of other visceral metastatic disease. Although most patients with brain metastases resulting from melanoma have a dismal prognosis, some who are likely to survive for longer periods can be identified. In these patients surgical resection can significantly prolong meaningful survival. The decision to recommend surgery should be based primarily on the resectability of the brain metastases and on the status and number of other organs with metastatic lesions.
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            Determinants of outcome in melanoma patients with cerebral metastases.

            To analyze prognostic factors, effects of treatment, and survival for patients with cerebral metastases from melanoma. All melanoma patients with cerebral metastases treated at the Sydney Melanoma Unit between 1952 and 2000 were identified. From 1985 to 2000, patients were diagnosed and treated using consistent modern techniques and this cohort was analyzed in detail. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for survival was performed. A total of 1137 patients with cerebral metastases were identified; 686 were treated between 1985 and 2000. For these 686 patients, the median time from primary diagnosis to cerebral metastasis was 3.1 years (range, 0 to 41 years). A total of 646 patients (94%) have died as a result of melanoma. The median survival from the time of diagnosis of cerebral metastasis was 4.1 months (range, 0 to 17.2 years). Treatment was as follows: surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, 158 patients; surgery alone, 47 patients; radiotherapy alone, 236 patients; and supportive care alone, 210 patients. Median survival according to treatment received for these four groups was 8.9, 8.7, 3.4, and 2.1 months, respectively; the differences between surgery and nonsurgery groups were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, significant factors associated with improved survival were surgical treatment (P <.0001), no concurrent extracerebral metastases (P <.0001), younger age (P =.0007), and longer disease-free interval (P =.036). Prognostic factors analysis confirmed the important influence of patient selection on treatment received. This large series documents the characteristics of patients who developed cerebral metastases from melanoma. Median survival was dependent on treatment, which in turn was dependent on patient selection.
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              Early detection and treatment of skin cancer.

              The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. Squamous cell cancers may be preceded by actinic keratoses-premalignant lesions that are treated with cryotherapy, excision, curettage or topical 5-fluorouracil. While squamous cell carcinoma is usually easily cured with local excision, it may invade deeper structures and metastasize. Aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. Early detection greatly improves the prognosis of patients with malignant melanoma. The differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions is challenging, although the ABCD and seven-point checklists are helpful in determining which pigmented lesions require excision. Sun exposure remains the most important risk factor for all skin neoplasms. Thus, patients should be taught basic "safe sun" measures: sun avoidance during peak ultraviolet-B hours; proper use of sunscreen and protective clothing; and avoidance of suntanning.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pol J Radiol
                Pol J Radiol
                Pol J Radiol
                Polish Journal of Radiology
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                1733-134X
                1899-0967
                2014
                10 July 2014
                : 79
                : 199-202
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, EL Paso, TX, U.S.A.
                [2 ]Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, TX, U.S.A.
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, EL Paso, TX, U.S.A.
                Author notes
                Author’s address: Sarmad Said, Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center. Paul L. Foster School of Medicine. EL Paso, TX, U.S.A., e-mail: sarmad.said@ 123456ttuhsc.edu
                [A]

                Study Design

                [B]

                Data Collection

                [C]

                Statistical Analysis

                [D]

                Data Interpretation

                [E]

                Manuscript Preparation

                [F]

                Literature Search

                [G]

                Funds Collection

                Article
                890733
                10.12659/PJR.890733
                4096460
                © Pol J Radiol, 2014

                This is an open access article. Unrestricted non-commercial use is permitted provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Radiology & Imaging

                biological, magnetic resonance angiography, tumor markers, amelanotic, melanoma

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