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      Oxidative Stress and Renal Fibrosis: Recent Insights for the Development of Novel Therapeutic Strategies

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant worldwide healthcare problem. Regardless of the initial injury, renal fibrosis is the common final pathway leading to end stage renal disease. Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined, evidence indicates that besides inflammation, oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the etiology of renal fibrosis. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the production of free radicals that are often increased by inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduced anti-oxidant defenses. Several studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress may occur secondary to activation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) activity, consistent with its role to increase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) activity. A number of other oxidative stress-related signal pathways have also been identified, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1-phosphodiesterase (cGMP-cGK1-PDE) signaling pathway, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) pathway. Several antioxidant and renoprotective agents, including cysteamine bitartrate, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and cytoglobin (Cygb) have demonstrated ameliorative effects on renal fibrosis in preclinical or clinical studies. The mechanism of action of many traditional Chinese medicines used to treat renal disorders is based on their antioxidant properties, which could form the basis for new therapeutic approaches. This review focuses on the signaling pathways triggered by oxidative stress that lead to renal fibrosis and provides an update on the development of novel anti-oxidant therapies for CKD.

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          NADPH oxidase 1 plays a key role in diabetes mellitus-accelerated atherosclerosis.

          In diabetes mellitus, vascular complications such as atherosclerosis are a major cause of death. The key underlying pathomechanisms are unclear. However, hyperglycemic oxidative stress derived from NADPH oxidase (Nox), the only known dedicated enzyme to generate reactive oxygen species appears to play a role. Here we identify the Nox1 isoform as playing a key and pharmacologically targetable role in the accelerated development of diabetic atherosclerosis. Human aortic endothelial cells exposed to hyperglycemic conditions showed increased expression of Nox1, oxidative stress, and proinflammatory markers in a Nox1-siRNA reversible manner. Similarly, the specific Nox inhibitor, GKT137831, prevented oxidative stress in response to hyperglycemia in human aortic endothelial cells. To examine these observations in vivo, we investigated the role of Nox1 on plaque development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice 10 weeks after induction of diabetes mellitus. Deletion of Nox1, but not Nox4, had a profound antiatherosclerotic effect correlating with reduced reactive oxygen species formation, attenuation of chemokine expression, vascular adhesion of leukocytes, macrophage infiltration, and reduced expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic markers. Similarly, treatment of diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with GKT137831 attenuated atherosclerosis development. These studies identify a major pathological role for Nox1 and suggest that Nox1-dependent oxidative stress is a promising target for diabetic vasculopathies, including atherosclerosis.
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            NAD(P)H oxidase mediates TGF-beta1-induced activation of kidney myofibroblasts.

            TGF-beta1 expression closely associates with activation and conversion of fibroblasts to a myofibroblast phenotype and synthesis of an alternatively spliced cellular fibronectin variant, Fn-ED-A. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide, which is a product of NAD(P)H oxidase, also promote the transition of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, but whether these two pathways are interrelated is unknown. Here, we examined a role for NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in TGF-beta1-induced activation of rat kidney fibroblasts and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and Fn-ED-A. In vitro, TGF-beta1 stimulated formation of abundant stress fibers and increased expression of both alpha-SMA and Fn-ED-A. In addition, TGF-beta1 increased both the activity of NADPH oxidase and expression of Nox2 and Nox4, homologs of the NAD(P)H oxidase family, indicating that this growth factor induces production of ROS. Small interfering RNA targeted against Nox4 markedly inhibited TGF-beta1-induced stimulation of NADPH oxidase activity and reduced alpha-SMA and Fn-ED-A expression. Inhibition of TGF-beta1 receptor 1 blocked Smad3 phosphorylation; reduced TGF-beta1-enhanced NADPH oxidase activity; and decreased expression of Nox4, alpha-SMA, and Fn-ED-A. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of flavin-containing enzymes such as the Nox oxidases, had no effect on TGF-beta1-induced Smad3 but reduced both alpha-SMA and Fn-ED-A protein expression. The Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 reduced NADPH oxidase activity, Nox4 expression, and blocked alpha-SMA and Fn-ED-A, indicating that stimulation of myofibroblast activation by ROS is downstream of Smad3. In addition, TGF-beta1 stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and this was inhibited by blocking TGF-beta1 receptor 1, Smad3, or the Nox oxidases; ERK1/2 activation increased alpha-SMA and Fn-ED-A. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-beta1-induced conversion of fibroblasts to a myofibroblast phenotype involves a signaling cascade through Smad3, NAD(P)H oxidase, and ERK1/2.
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              Nitric oxide deficiency in chronic kidney disease.

               Chris Baylis (2007)
              The overall production of nitric oxide (NO) is decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD) which contributes to cardiovascular events and further progression of kidney damage. There are many likely causes of NO deficiency in CKD and the areas surveyed in this review are: 1. Limitations on substrate (l-Arginine) availability, probably due to impaired renal l-Arginine biosynthesis, decreased transport of l-Arginine into endothelial cells and possible competition between NOS and competing metabolic pathways, such as arginase. 2. Increased circulating levels of endogenous NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, in particular asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Increased methylation of proteins and their subsequent breakdown to release free ADMA may contribute but the major culprit is probably reduced ADMA catabolism by the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases. 3. Reduced renal cortex abundance of the neuronal NOS (nNOS)alpha protein correlates with injury while increasing nNOSbeta abundance may provide a compensatory, protective response. Interventions that can restore NO production by targeting these various pathways are likely to reduce the cardiovascular complications of CKD as well as slowing the rate of progression.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                16 February 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center , Jackson, MS, United States
                2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University , Qingdao, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jing-Yan Han, Peking University, China

                Reviewed by: Suowen Xu, University of Rochester, United States; Ningjun Li, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States

                *Correspondence: Richard J. Roman rroman@ 123456umc.edu

                This article was submitted to Vascular Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2018.00105
                5820314
                Copyright © 2018 Lv, Booz, Fan, Wang and Roman.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 116, Pages: 11, Words: 9583
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health 10.13039/100000002
                Award ID: HL36279
                Award ID: DK104184
                Award ID: AG050049
                Award ID: P20GM104357
                Funded by: American Heart Association 10.13039/100000968
                Award ID: 16GRNT31200036
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81270939
                Award ID: 81472983
                Award ID: 81571625
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province 10.13039/501100007129
                Award ID: ZR2017MH069
                Categories
                Physiology
                Review

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