Guanylyltransferase and methyltransferases that modify the 5'-terminals of viral mRNA's to form the structures m7G(5')pppAm- and m7G(5')pppGm- appear to be synthesized afte- vaccinia virus infection of HeLa cells. Elevations in these enzyme activities were detected within 1 h after virus inoculation and increased 15- to 30-fold by 4 to 10 h. Increases in the guanylyl- and methyltransferase activities were prevented by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, but not by cytosine arabinoside, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. The latter results suggest that the mRNA guanylyl- and methyltransferases are "early" or prereplicative viral gene products. The guanylyltransferase and two methyltransferases, a guanine-7-methyltransferase and nucleoside-2'-methyltransferase, were isolated by column chromatography from infected cell extracts and found to have properties similar or identical to those of the corresponding enzyme previously isolated from vaccinia virus cores. In contrast, enzymes with these properties could not be isolated from uninfected cells.