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      COVID-19 impact and virtual medical education

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          The Corona-Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic has had a tremendous effect on medical education. It is also challenging the medical educationists' ability to adapt to this whole unique situation. Considering the hospital-based education, clinical mentors, and students in all health professions are potential carriers.

          However, the current crisis is revitalizing the necessity for online learning opportunities and virtual education. Most medical schools are following reacting to lockdown with a shift to live online or video-based learning. Maintaining standard in medical education, keeping the clinical learning on stream, and minimizing the assessment disruption are unprecedented challenges under pandemic conditions. Adaptation to this new situation is necessary to prepare future clinicians for practice.

          This commentary discusses how this pandemic may affect medical education. In this commentary, the author highlights the importance of virtual education and the potential implications of integrating virtual simulation technologies into medical education for the future of clinical competency learning and assessment.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Applications and Challenges of Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Integrative Review

           Kai Chan,  Nabil Zary (2019)
          Background Since the advent of artificial intelligence (AI) in 1955, the applications of AI have increased over the years within a rapidly changing digital landscape where public expectations are on the rise, fed by social media, industry leaders, and medical practitioners. However, there has been little interest in AI in medical education until the last two decades, with only a recent increase in the number of publications and citations in the field. To our knowledge, thus far, a limited number of articles have discussed or reviewed the current use of AI in medical education. Objective This study aims to review the current applications of AI in medical education as well as the challenges of implementing AI in medical education. Methods Medline (Ovid), EBSCOhost Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Education Source, and Web of Science were searched with explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full text of the selected articles was analyzed using the Extension of Technology Acceptance Model and the Diffusions of Innovations theory. Data were subsequently pooled together and analyzed quantitatively. Results A total of 37 articles were identified. Three primary uses of AI in medical education were identified: learning support (n=32), assessment of students’ learning (n=4), and curriculum review (n=1). The main reasons for use of AI are its ability to provide feedback and a guided learning pathway and to decrease costs. Subgroup analysis revealed that medical undergraduates are the primary target audience for AI use. In addition, 34 articles described the challenges of AI implementation in medical education; two main reasons were identified: difficulty in assessing the effectiveness of AI in medical education and technical challenges while developing AI applications. Conclusions The primary use of AI in medical education was for learning support mainly due to its ability to provide individualized feedback. Little emphasis was placed on curriculum review and assessment of students’ learning due to the lack of digitalization and sensitive nature of examinations, respectively. Big data manipulation also warrants the need to ensure data integrity. Methodological improvements are required to increase AI adoption by addressing the technical difficulties of creating an AI application and using novel methods to assess the effectiveness of AI. To better integrate AI into the medical profession, measures should be taken to introduce AI into the medical school curriculum for medical professionals to better understand AI algorithms and maximize its use.
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            Effects of physician- patient electronic communications on the quality of care

             S. Tabatabai (2013)
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              Ophthalmic Education and Ophthalmologists Growth Trends in Iran (1979–2016)

              Purpose: To analyze the growth trends in ophthalmic education in Iran since 1979, and to discuss their implications on the profession. Methods: This comprehensive national study was performed by the Academy of Medical Sciences of I.R. Iran. The data were gathered from the Specialty Training Council of the Ministry of Health and from the Medical Council of Iran. Results: Our analysis revealed ten important current growth trends and seven future trends and implications. Between 1979-80 and 2015-16, the number of residents annually admitted to ophthalmology increased from 21 to 84 and related fellowships and from 0 to 34. The number of ophthalmologists graduating in the country increased from 21 (45%) in 1979 to 69 (98%) in 2015. The ratio of ophthalmologists per 100,000 people averaged 1.91 in 1979 and 3.00 in 2016. Considering migrant and retired ophthalmologists, there are approximately 2400 active ophthalmologists in Iran. In 1979, there was one active ophthalmologist per 52,112 people; in 2014, there was one per 33,333 people. This represents a per capita increase of 57%. Since 1979, the number of active ophthalmologists has increased by 234%. The number of active women ophthalmologists has increased by more than 600%, from 65 (9%) in 1979 to 470 (20%) in 2016. Conclusion: Equitable geographic distribution and balanced combination of ophthalmologists (women/men and specialists/fellowships) are necessary to optimize community eye health. We propose further studies on the effects of fellowship training growth and work patterns of female and male ophthalmologists.

                Author and article information

                J Adv Med Educ Prof
                J Adv Med Educ Prof
                Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
                Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Iran )
                July 2020
                : 8
                : 3
                : 140-143
                [1 ] Medical Education Group, Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: Shima Tabatabai, Ph.D; Medical Education Group, Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +982122405611, E-mail: shtabatabai@ , shima.tabatabai@
                Copyright: © Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License, ( ) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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