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      Coffee and the Risk of Lymphoma: A Meta-analysis Article

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Coffee is implicated in the susceptibility to several cancers. However, the association between coffee and lymphoma remains unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to assess quantitatively the association between coffee and the incidence of lymphoma.

          Methods:

          A literature search was performed for cohort and case-control studies published using PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. Studies were included if they reported relative ratios (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lymphoma with respect to coffee consumption. Pooled relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. All P values are two tailed

          Results:

          Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, which included three cohort and four case-control studies. Compared with did not or seldom drink coffee per day, being no significantly association between coffee and risk of lymphoma (pooled RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.89–1.23). In the subgroup analysis, no significant association between coffee and lymphoma risk was detected not only in different study types (cohort studies RR: 1.29; 95% CI, 0.92–1.80; case control studies RR: 0.99; 95% CI, 0.82–1.99) but also in different regions (Europe RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.99–1.47; USA RR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62–1.15; Asia RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.84–1.40) and coffee consumption status (≥4cups/d 1.03, 95% CI: 0.69–1.56; < 4cups/d RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.89–1.26). The funnel plot revealed no evidence for publication bias.

          Conclusion:

          There was no sufficient evidence to support coffee consumption association with the risk of lymphoma. Further well-designed large-scaled cohort studies are needed to provide conclusions that are more definitive.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 45

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          Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test.

          Funnel plots (plots of effect estimates against sample size) may be useful to detect bias in meta-analyses that were later contradicted by large trials. We examined whether a simple test of asymmetry of funnel plots predicts discordance of results when meta-analyses are compared to large trials, and we assessed the prevalence of bias in published meta-analyses. Medline search to identify pairs consisting of a meta-analysis and a single large trial (concordance of results was assumed if effects were in the same direction and the meta-analytic estimate was within 30% of the trial); analysis of funnel plots from 37 meta-analyses identified from a hand search of four leading general medicine journals 1993-6 and 38 meta-analyses from the second 1996 issue of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Degree of funnel plot asymmetry as measured by the intercept from regression of standard normal deviates against precision. In the eight pairs of meta-analysis and large trial that were identified (five from cardiovascular medicine, one from diabetic medicine, one from geriatric medicine, one from perinatal medicine) there were four concordant and four discordant pairs. In all cases discordance was due to meta-analyses showing larger effects. Funnel plot asymmetry was present in three out of four discordant pairs but in none of concordant pairs. In 14 (38%) journal meta-analyses and 5 (13%) Cochrane reviews, funnel plot asymmetry indicated that there was bias. A simple analysis of funnel plots provides a useful test for the likely presence of bias in meta-analyses, but as the capacity to detect bias will be limited when meta-analyses are based on a limited number of small trials the results from such analyses should be treated with considerable caution.
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            This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews lack consistent assessment of homogeneity of treatment effect before pooling. We discuss a random effects approach to combining evidence from a series of experiments comparing two treatments. This approach incorporates the heterogeneity of effects in the analysis of the overall treatment efficacy. The model can be extended to include relevant covariates which would reduce the heterogeneity and allow for more specific therapeutic recommendations. We suggest a simple noniterative procedure for characterizing the distribution of treatment effects in a series of studies.
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              Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,638,910 new cancer cases and 577,190 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2012. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2004-2008), overall cancer incidence rates declined slightly in men (by 0.6% per year) and were stable in women, while cancer death rates decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.6% per year in women. Over the past 10 years of available data (1999-2008), cancer death rates have declined by more than 1% per year in men and women of every racial/ethnic group with the exception of American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. The most rapid declines in death rates occurred among African American and Hispanic men (2.4% and 2.3% per year, respectively). Death rates continue to decline for all 4 major cancer sites (lung, colorectum, breast, and prostate), with lung cancer accounting for almost 40% of the total decline in men and breast cancer accounting for 34% of the total decline in women. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of about 1,024,400 deaths from cancer. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population, with an emphasis on those groups in the lowest socioeconomic bracket. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Iran J Public Health
                Iran. J. Public Health
                IJPH
                IJPH
                Iranian Journal of Public Health
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                2251-6085
                2251-6093
                September 2016
                : 45
                : 9
                : 1126-1135
                Affiliations
                [1. ] Dept. of Hematology, Tai’an Central Hospital, Tai’an, Shandong, China
                [2. ] Dept. of Gastroenterology, Tai’an Central Hospital, Tai’an, Shandong, China
                [3. ] Dept. of Hematology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding Author: Email: doctorxhz@ 123456163.com
                ijph-45-1126
                5149466
                27957457
                Copyright© Iranian Public Health Association & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Public health

                meta-analysis, case-control study, cohort study, coffee, lymphoma

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