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      Disease Response to Pazopanib in Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma

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          Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare sarcoma, which commonly presents as a slow-growing, painless mass. There are only a few hundred reported FDCS cases, and the role for adjuvant chemo- or radiation therapy has not been established. Choosing an appropriate therapy in disseminated disease can therefore be challenging. A 26-year-old patient with FDCS was admitted with dyspnea, fever, and night sweats. He was found to have a large right hemothorax with compressive atelectasis on initial imaging. CT of the chest revealed multiple bilateral lung and pleural nodules with associated bilateral hilar adenopathy, a hypodense mass within the right hemithorax, and necrotic right external iliac and inguinal nodes. Inguinal node biopsy diagnosed FDCS. The patient was initially treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy. Gemcitabine/Taxotere was given as second-line therapy and pembrolizumab as third-line therapy, with continued disease progression after 2 cycles of both regimens. The patient was switched to fourth-line therapy with pazopanib and had a partial response for 9 months. This case illustrates a successful FDCS treatment with pazopanib. Due to the rarity of FDCS, where large studies comparing treatment approaches are not available, recommendations for optimal treatment are not well defined. This case is in support of growing evidence suggesting that FDCS responds to systemic therapies that are used for soft tissue sarcoma, such as pazopanib.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Pembrolizumab in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and bone sarcoma (SARC028): a multicentre, two-cohort, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial.

          Patients with advanced sarcomas have a poor prognosis and few treatment options that improve overall survival. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies offer short-lived disease control. We assessed pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, for safety and activity in patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma or bone sarcoma.
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            Anti-programmed-death-receptor-1 treatment with pembrolizumab in ipilimumab-refractory advanced melanoma: a randomised dose-comparison cohort of a phase 1 trial.

            The anti-programmed-death-receptor-1 (PD-1) antibody pembrolizumab has shown potent antitumour activity at different doses and schedules in patients with melanoma. We compared the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab at doses of 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks in patients with ipilimumab-refractory advanced melanoma. In an open-label, international, multicentre expansion cohort of a phase 1 trial, patients (aged ≥18 years) with advanced melanoma whose disease had progressed after at least two ipilimumab doses were randomly assigned with a computer-generated allocation schedule (1:1 final ratio) to intravenous pembrolizumab at 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks until disease progression, intolerable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST, version 1.1) by independent central review. Analysis was done on the full-analysis set (all treated patients with measurable disease at baseline). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01295827. 173 patients received pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg (n=89) or 10 mg/kg (n=84). Median follow-up duration was 8 months. ORR was 26% at both doses--21 of 81 patients in the 2 mg/kg group and 20 of 76 in the 10 mg/kg group (difference 0%, 95% CI -14 to 13; p=0·96). Treatment was well tolerated, with similar safety profiles in the 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg groups and no drug-related deaths. The most common drug-related adverse events of any grade in the 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg groups were fatigue (29 [33%] vs 31 [37%]), pruritus (23 [26%] vs 16 [19%]), and rash (16 [18%] vs 15 [18%]). Grade 3 fatigue, reported in five (3%) patients in the 2 mg/kg pembrolizumab group, was the only drug-related grade 3 to 4 adverse event reported in more than one patient. The results suggest that pembrolizumab at a dose of 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks might be an effective treatment in patients for whom there are few effective treatment options. Merck Sharp and Dohme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Pazopanib, a multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor, in patients with relapsed or refractory advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II study from the European organisation for research and treatment of cancer-soft tissue and bone sarcoma group (EORTC study 62043).

              PURPOSE Given the importance of angiogenesis in soft tissue sarcoma (STS), pazopanib, an oral angiogenesis inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, was explored in patients with advanced STS. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with intermediate- or high-grade advanced STS who were ineligible for chemotherapy or who had received no more than two prior cytotoxic agents for advanced disease, who had documented progression, who had adequate performance status, and who had good organ function were eligible. Pazopanib 800 mg was given daily. The primary end point was progression-free rate at 12 weeks (PFR(12 weeks)). Secondary end points were response, safety, and overall survival. Four different strata were studied: adipocytic STS, leiomyosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, and other STS types. A Simon two-stage design was applied (P1 = 40%; P0 = 20%; alpha = beta = .1) for each stratum. Results One hundred forty-two patients were enrolled. The adipocytic STS stratum was closed after the first stage, given insufficient activity (PFR(12 weeks), five [26%] of19). PFR(12 weeks) was 18 (44%) of 41 patients in the leiomyosarcoma cohort, 18 (49%) of 37 in the synovial sarcomas, and 16 (39%) of 41 in the other STS types. Compared with historical controls who were treated with second-line chemotherapy, progression-free and overall survivals were prolonged in the three cohorts in which the primary end point was reached. The most frequent drug-related toxicities were hypertension, fatigue, hypopigmentation, and nausea. Other toxicities included liver enzyme elevations, myelosuppression, and proteinuria, all of which were mostly grades 1 to 2. The most frequent grades 3 to 4 toxicities were hyperbilirubinemia (6.3%), hypertension (7.7%), and fatigue (7.7%). CONCLUSION Pazopanib is well tolerated in patients with relapsed, advanced STS and demonstrates interesting activity that warrants additional study in patients with leiomyosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, and other STS types.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                September - December 2020
                21 September 2020
                : 13
                : 3
                : 1131-1135
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Reading Hospital, Tower Health, West Reading, Pennsylvania, USA
                bDepartment of Hematology/Oncology, Reading Hospital, Tower Health, West Reading, Pennsylvania, USA
                Author notes
                *Pooja Shah, Tower Health - Reading Hospital, Internal Medicine, 420 S 5th Street, West Reading PA 19611 (USA), pooja.shah@towerhealth.org
                509771 PMC7548949 Case Rep Oncol 2020;13:1131–1135
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 2, Pages: 5
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