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      New insights on the diversity of Brazilian anuran blood parasites: With the description of three new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) from Leptodactylidae anurans

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          Abstract

          The Amphibia are considered the most threatened vertebrate class globally, yet in Brazil they are also one of the more diverse and species rich groups. Although, in recent years there has been strong focus on amphibian related research, their parasites have not received the same attention. In Brazil, only a single species of Hepatozoon, namely H. leptodactyli (Lesage, 1908) Pessoa, 1970, has been described from anuran hosts. The present study aimed to describe three new species of Hepatozoon parasitising Leptodactylus labyrinthicus and Leptodactylus latrans from Mato Grosso State, Brazil. From 66 anurans screened for haemogregarines, four belonging to the Leptodactylidae were found positive for species of Hepatozoon. Based on the morphological analysis of peripheral blood gamonts and spleen and liver tissue meronts, three different morphotypes of Hepatozoon spp. were identified. Morphotype 1 (M1) and morphotype 2 (M2) in L. labyrinthicus and morphotype 3 (M3) in L. latrans. Molecular data based on partial 18S rDNA sequences revealed an interspecific divergence, between the species ranging from 0.43% to 1.16%. Phylogenetic analysis recovered isolates from the present study monophyletic with other isolates from Brazilian reptile and anuran hosts, sister to a clade comprising species isolated from African, North American and European reptile and anuran host species. Thus, using morphological and molecular analysis three new species infecting Brazilian Leptodactylidae anurans were identified and described. This study increases the knowledge of Brazilian anurans blood parasites and demonstrates the importance of using integrative approaches for diagnosis of hemoparasites.

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          Highlights

          • Diversity and phylogenetic relationship of haemogregarines from Brazilian anurans.

          • Description of a three new species of Hepatozoon from Brazilian anurans.

          • First report of species of Hepatozoon descriptions using both morphological and molecular approaches from Brazilian anurans.

          • Merogonic data of Hepatozoon spp. infection on Brazilian anurans.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data

          Summary: The two main functions of bioinformatics are the organization and analysis of biological data using computational resources. Geneious Basic has been designed to be an easy-to-use and flexible desktop software application framework for the organization and analysis of biological data, with a focus on molecular sequences and related data types. It integrates numerous industry-standard discovery analysis tools, with interactive visualizations to generate publication-ready images. One key contribution to researchers in the life sciences is the Geneious public application programming interface (API) that affords the ability to leverage the existing framework of the Geneious Basic software platform for virtually unlimited extension and customization. The result is an increase in the speed and quality of development of computation tools for the life sciences, due to the functionality and graphical user interface available to the developer through the public API. Geneious Basic represents an ideal platform for the bioinformatics community to leverage existing components and to integrate their own specific requirements for the discovery, analysis and visualization of biological data. Availability and implementation: Binaries and public API freely available for download at http://www.geneious.com/basic, implemented in Java and supported on Linux, Apple OSX and MS Windows. The software is also available from the Bio-Linux package repository at http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/news/geneiousonbl. Contact: peter@biomatters.com
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            jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing.

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              A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood.

              The increase in the number of large data sets and the complexity of current probabilistic sequence evolution models necessitates fast and reliable phylogeny reconstruction methods. We describe a new approach, based on the maximum- likelihood principle, which clearly satisfies these requirements. The core of this method is a simple hill-climbing algorithm that adjusts tree topology and branch lengths simultaneously. This algorithm starts from an initial tree built by a fast distance-based method and modifies this tree to improve its likelihood at each iteration. Due to this simultaneous adjustment of the topology and branch lengths, only a few iterations are sufficient to reach an optimum. We used extensive and realistic computer simulations to show that the topological accuracy of this new method is at least as high as that of the existing maximum-likelihood programs and much higher than the performance of distance-based and parsimony approaches. The reduction of computing time is dramatic in comparison with other maximum-likelihood packages, while the likelihood maximization ability tends to be higher. For example, only 12 min were required on a standard personal computer to analyze a data set consisting of 500 rbcL sequences with 1,428 base pairs from plant plastids, thus reaching a speed of the same order as some popular distance-based and parsimony algorithms. This new method is implemented in the PHYML program, which is freely available on our web page: http://www.lirmm.fr/w3ifa/MAAS/.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl
                Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl
                International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
                Elsevier
                2213-2244
                24 February 2021
                April 2021
                24 February 2021
                : 14
                : 190-201
                Affiliations
                [a ]Setor de Parasitologia, DBBVPZ, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista- UNESP, Distrito de Rubião Junior, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
                [b ]Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
                [c ]Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Animais Silvestres, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Rua Prof. Dr. Antônio Celso Wagner Zanin, 250, Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Instituto de Biociências (IB), Setor de Parasitologia, Distrito de Ribeirão Junior, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. letspungari@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                S2213-2244(21)00023-7
                10.1016/j.ijppaw.2021.02.009
                8056137
                © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Australian Society for Parasitology.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Articles from the Special Issue 'Africa-Parasites of Wildlife'

                hemoparasite, haemogregarine, anuran, phylogeny, 18s rdna

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