The reported data point to a clear trend of increasing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Poland with a tendency toward its reduction in recent years. The mortality is higher in urban than rural areas, but the increase has been greater in the rural population, especially in males. Recent reduction in the trend of increasing mortality has not been found in middle-aged men and women. The trend showed a correlation with changes in the levels of risk factors, especially in the usual diet consumed by the population. The authors suggest that the increased mortality is due to an increased incidence of CHD.