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      MR Imaging of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: Morphologic Findings and Interobserver Reliability

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          Abstract

          Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is frequently used to diagnose arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D). However, the reliability of various MR imaging features for diagnosing ARVC/D is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which morphologic MR imaging features have the greatest interobserver reliability for diagnosing ARVC/D. Methods: Forty-five sets of films of cardiac MR images were sent to 8 radiologists and 5 cardiologists with experience in this field. There were 7 cases of definite ARVC/D as defined by the Task Force criteria. Six cases were controls. The remaining 32 cases had MR imaging because of clinical suspicion of ARVC/D. Readers evaluated the images for the presence of (a) right ventricle (RV) enlargement, (b) RV abnormal morphology, (c) left ventricle enlargement, (d) presence of high T<sub>1</sub> signal (fat) in the myocardium, and (e) location of high T<sub>1</sub> signal (fat) on a Likert scale with formatted responses. Results: Readers indicated that the Task Force ARVC/D cases had significantly more (χ<sup>2</sup> = 119.93, d.f. = 10, p < 0.0001) RV chamber size enlargement (58%) than either the suspected ARVC/D (12%) or no ARVC/D (14%) cases. When readers reported the RV chamber size as enlarged they were significantly more likely to report the case as ARVC/D present (χ<sup>2</sup><sup>= </sup>33.98, d.f. = 1, p < 0.0001). When readers reported the morphology as abnormal they were more likely to diagnose the case as ARVC/D present (χ<sup>2</sup> = 78.4, d.f. = 1, p < 0.0001), and the Task Force ARVC/D (47%) cases received significantly more abnormal reports than either suspected ARVC/D (20%) or non-ARVC/D (15%) cases. There was no significant difference between patient groups in the reported presence of high signal intensity (fat) in the RV (χ<sup>2</sup> = 0.9, d.f. = 2, p > 0.05). Conclusions: Reviewers found that the size and shape of abnormalities in the RV are key MR imaging discriminates of ARVD. Subsequent protocol development and multicenter trials need to address these parameters. Essential steps in improving accuracy and reducing variability include a standardized acquisition protocol and standardized analysis with dynamic cine review of regional RV function and quantification of RV and left ventricle volumes.

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          Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.

          Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a new form of cardiomyopathy probably more frequent than commonly reported. It is a rare but important cause of sudden arrhythmic death in young, otherwise healthy persons, as well as a subtle cause of congestive heart failure. It may lead to temporary incapacitation with catastrophic consequences. Proper electrocardiographic criteria, echocardiography, nuclear medicine, or magnetic resonance imaging could identify most of these individuals. With the exception of full-thickness histological examination of the right ventricular free wall, contrast ventriculography remains the most definitive standard for a positive diagnosis. The wide clinical spectrum of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies/dysplasia appears to be the result of one or possibly two factors: (a) replacement of most of the right ventricular myocardium by fat and (b) genetic susceptibility to environmental agents (myocarditis). Current treatment modalities include drug therapy, catheter or surgical ablative techniques, and modern treatments of congestive heart failure. Heart transplant is exceptional. Implantable defibrillators, used alone or in combination with drug therapy, will probably play an increasing role in ARVD and related cardiomyopathies.
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            Magnetic resonance imaging in right ventricular dysplasia.

            Fifteen patients with right ventricular dysplasia were investigated by T1-weighted spin- and gradient-echo pulse sequences, using a protocol that enabled both a subjective analysis of myocardial signal intensity and a quantitative/qualitative analysis of right and left ventricular function. In 8 patients, 3 investigators independently recognized abnormally hyperintense areas in the anatomic sites usually affected by the disease. In 7 of these patients, these areas showed an overlap with a-dyskinetic areas imaged by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography. In 1 patient who underwent a cardiac transplant, MRI of the explanted heart showed an excellent correlation between the distribution of the lesions and the in vivo/in vitro features. The data were compared with those from an equivalent sample of patients affected by dilated cardiomyopathy. In the latter patients, no focal hyperintensities were attributed to any anatomic sites in the right ventricule, and no focal a-dyskinetic foci were observed. Furthermore, the 2 groups of patients were significantly different in regard to dimensional and functional quantitative parameters. The results suggest that MRI is useful in integrating echocardiographic data and can be helpful in diagnosing this disease in late stages.
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              Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: MR features.

              Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a heart disease characterized by a total or partial fat replacement of the myocardium. A total of 30 patients were studied with a suspected diagnosis of ARVD. Clinical criteria used for evaluation of ARVD were: (a) ventricular origin arrhythmias with a left bundle branch block configuration, (b) T-wave inversion in the anterior precordial leads, (c) ventricular kinetic alterations observed using echocardiography and angiography and (d) cardiac failure when there are no pathologies attributable to other heart diseases. All patients had serial EKG and echocardiography tests. One third of patients underwent angiocardiography; 7 of 30 had Holter; 7 of 30 had exercise test just to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-arrhythmic therapy. All patients underwent MRI examination. The following MRI criteria were used: (a) high-intensity areas indicating the fatty substitution of the myocardium, (b) ectasia of the right ventricular outflow tract, (c) dyskinetic bulges, (d) dilation of the right ventricle and (e) enlargement of the right atrium. The diagnosis of ARVD was classified as highly probable for patients manifesting at least three positive criteria, probable with two positive criteria, dubious with one and negative in the absence of all criteria. Highly probable diagnosis of ARVD was made in 8 patients, probable in 4, dubious in 7 and negative in 11. The MRI technique is very effective in the assessment of ARVD. The MRI criteria may be helpful in the diagnosis of this condition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2003
                June 2003
                27 June 2003
                : 99
                : 3
                : 153-162
                Affiliations
                aSarver Heart Center and bDepartment of Radiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., cDepartment of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., dDepartment of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md., eDepartment of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, N.Y., USA; fDepartment of Cardiology, Istituto di Clinica Medica e Cardiologia, Florence, Italy; gDepartment of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., USA; h3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Central Hospital, St. Pölten, Austria; iDepartment of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif., jDepartment of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., kDepartment of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA; lDepartment of Radiology, Children’s and Women’s Health Center of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; mDepartment of Radiology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden; nDepartment of Cardiovascular MR, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK; oDepartment of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., pDepartment of Radiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; qDepartment of Cardiology and Angiology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany
                Article
                70672 Cardiology 2003;99:153–162
                10.1159/000070672
                12824723
                122b919c-1e48-4fcf-9f47-06a1357fbad9
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 11 February 2003
                : 14 February 2003
                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 3, References: 25, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Non-Invasive and Diagnostic Cardiology

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Cardiomyopathy,Diagnosis,Magnetic resonance imaging,Right ventricle

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