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      The Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Revisited: Outlining Their Role in Biological Macromolecules (DNA, Lipids and Proteins) and Induced Pathologies

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          Abstract

          Living species are continuously subjected to all extrinsic forms of reactive oxidants and others that are produced endogenously. There is extensive literature on the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological processes, both in terms of alteration and their role in cellular signaling and regulatory pathways. Cells produce ROS as a controlled physiological process, but increasing ROS becomes pathological and leads to oxidative stress and disease. The induction of oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of radical species and the antioxidant defense systems, which can cause damage to cellular biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA. Cellular and biochemical experiments have been complemented in various ways to explain the biological chemistry of ROS oxidants. However, it is often unclear how this translates into chemical reactions involving redox changes. This review addresses this question and includes a robust mechanistic explanation of the chemical reactions of ROS and oxidative stress.

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          Most cited references78

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          Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation.

          In contrast to normal differentiated cells, which rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to generate the energy needed for cellular processes, most cancer cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed "the Warburg effect." Aerobic glycolysis is an inefficient way to generate adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), however, and the advantage it confers to cancer cells has been unclear. Here we propose that the metabolism of cancer cells, and indeed all proliferating cells, is adapted to facilitate the uptake and incorporation of nutrients into the biomass (e.g., nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids) needed to produce a new cell. Supporting this idea are recent studies showing that (i) several signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation also regulate metabolic pathways that incorporate nutrients into biomass; and that (ii) certain cancer-associated mutations enable cancer cells to acquire and metabolize nutrients in a manner conducive to proliferation rather than efficient ATP production. A better understanding of the mechanistic links between cellular metabolism and growth control may ultimately lead to better treatments for human cancer.
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            Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as pleiotropic physiological signalling agents

            'Reactive oxygen species' (ROS) is an umbrella term for an array of derivatives of molecular oxygen that occur as a normal attribute of aerobic life. Elevated formation of the different ROS leads to molecular damage, denoted as 'oxidative distress'. Here we focus on ROS at physiological levels and their central role in redox signalling via different post-translational modifications, denoted as 'oxidative eustress'. Two species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the superoxide anion radical (O2·-), are key redox signalling agents generated under the control of growth factors and cytokines by more than 40 enzymes, prominently including NADPH oxidases and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. At the low physiological levels in the nanomolar range, H2O2 is the major agent signalling through specific protein targets, which engage in metabolic regulation and stress responses to support cellular adaptation to a changing environment and stress. In addition, several other reactive species are involved in redox signalling, for instance nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide and oxidized lipids. Recent methodological advances permit the assessment of molecular interactions of specific ROS molecules with specific targets in redox signalling pathways. Accordingly, major advances have occurred in understanding the role of these oxidants in physiology and disease, including the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, skeletal muscle and metabolic regulation as well as ageing and cancer. In the past, unspecific elimination of ROS by use of low molecular mass antioxidant compounds was not successful in counteracting disease initiation and progression in clinical trials. However, controlling specific ROS-mediated signalling pathways by selective targeting offers a perspective for a future of more refined redox medicine. This includes enzymatic defence systems such as those controlled by the stress-response transcription factors NRF2 and nuclear factor-κB, the role of trace elements such as selenium, the use of redox drugs and the modulation of environmental factors collectively known as the exposome (for example, nutrition, lifestyle and irradiation).
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              ROS and the DNA damage response in cancer

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of short-lived, highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can induce DNA damage and affect the DNA damage response (DDR). There is unequivocal pre-clinical and clinical evidence that ROS influence the genotoxic stress caused by chemotherapeutics agents and ionizing radiation. Recent studies have provided mechanistic insight into how ROS can also influence the cellular response to DNA damage caused by genotoxic therapy, especially in the context of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs). This has led to the clinical evaluation of agents modulating ROS in combination with genotoxic therapy for cancer, with mixed success so far. These studies point to context dependent outcomes with ROS modulator combinations with Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, indicating a need for additional pre-clinical research in the field. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the effect of ROS in the DNA damage response, and its clinical relevance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                28 April 2021
                May 2021
                : 22
                : 9
                : 4642
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cinquima Institute and Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Valladolid University, Paseo de Belén, 7, 47011 Valladolid, Spain; celia.andres.juan@ 123456uva.es
                [2 ]Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology, CSIC-Spanish Research Council, Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez, 38206 La Laguna, Spain
                [3 ]Institute of Catalysis and Petrochemistry, CSIC-Spanish Research Council, 28049 Madrid, Spain; fplou@ 123456icp.csic.es
                [4 ]Sistemas de Biotecnología y Recursos Naturales, 47625 Valladolid, Spain; info@ 123456glize.eu
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4663-5565
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0831-893X
                Article
                ijms-22-04642
                10.3390/ijms22094642
                8125527
                33924958
                122ee209-5a57-4070-8221-0dd7c8105e78
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 10 April 2021
                : 26 April 2021
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                ros,oxidative stress,macromolecules
                Molecular biology
                ros, oxidative stress, macromolecules

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