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      Cadmium, lead and mercury in human milk from Slovakia.

      Food additives and contaminants
      Adolescent, Adult, Breast Feeding, Cadmium, administration & dosage, analysis, Dental Amalgam, pharmacokinetics, Female, Food Analysis, methods, Food Contamination, Humans, Infant Formula, chemistry, Infant, Newborn, Lead, Male, Mercury, Metals, Heavy, Milk, Human, Slovakia

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          Abstract

          The objective of this study was to investigate Cd, Pb, and Hg levels in the breast milk of 158 lactating healthy women who were not occupationally exposed and living in eight environmentally different polluted locations of the Slovak Republic. Levels of these metals were examined in relation to selected parameters, such as: location, mother's age, parity, number of mother's teeth fillings, newborn's gender and birth weight, and smoking habits in the family. Cd and Pb levels in human milk and reconstituted infant formula were determined by GFAAS. Hg levels were measured by amalgamation technique AAS. The average concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in breast milk samples, taken on the 4th postpartum day, were 0.43, 4.7 and 0.94 microg/kg, respectively, and those in infant formula (n = 10) were 0.40, 5.0 and 0.25 microg/kg, respectively. Dietary weekly intakes of Cd, Pb, and Hg from breast milk and infant formula in newborn babies were also estimated. Whereas the calculated average dietary intakes of Cd, Pb, and Hg in newborn babies from breast milk and infant formula were all far lower than the appropriate PTWI values recommended by WHO/FAO, two individual breast milk samples for Pb and one breast milk sample for Hg exceeded the PTWI values. Regarding the studied parameters, only the active/passive smoking of the mother at home significantly increased Pb levels in breast milk and amalgam teeth fillings increased Hg levels in breast milk.

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