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      The Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome.

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      The New England journal of medicine

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Although in textbooks asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are viewed as distinct disorders, there is increasing awareness that many patients have features of both. This article reviews the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Effect of inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            (2000)
          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results from a progressive decline in lung function, which is thought to be the consequence of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that antiinflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids would slow this decline. We enrolled 1116 persons with COPD whose forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 30 to 90 percent of the predicted value in a 10-center, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of inhaled triamcinolone acetonide administered at a dose of 600 microg twice daily. The primary outcome measure was the rate of decline in FEV1 after the administration of a bronchodilator. The secondary outcome measures included respiratory symptoms, use of health care services, and airway reactivity. In a substudy of 412 participants, we measured bone density in the lumbar spine and femur at base line and one and three years after the beginning of treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 40 months. The rate of decline in the FEV1 after bronchodilator use was similar in the 559 participants in the triamcinolone group and the 557 participants in the placebo group (44.2+/-2.9 vs. 47.0+/-3.0 ml per year, P= 0.50). Members of the triamcinolone group had fewer respiratory symptoms during the course of the study (21.1 per 100 person-years vs. 28.2 per 100 person-years, P=0.005) and had fewer visits to a physician because of a respiratory illness (1.2 per 100 person-years vs. 2.1 per 100 person-years, P=0.03). Those taking triamcinolone also had lower airway reactivity in response to methacholine challenge at 9 months and 33 months (P=0.02 for both comparisons). After three years, the bone density of the lumbar spine and the femur was significantly lower in the triamcinolone group (P < or = 0.007). Inhaled triamcinolone does not slow the rate of decline in lung function in people with COPD, but it improves airway reactivity and respiratory symptoms and decreases the use of health care services for respiratory problems. These benefits should be weighed against the potential long-term adverse effects of triamcinolone on bone mineral density.
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            Asthma-COPD overlap. Clinical relevance of genomic signatures of type 2 inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and likely includes a subgroup that is biologically comparable to asthma. Studying asthma-associated gene expression changes in COPD could add insight into COPD pathogenesis and reveal biomarkers that predict a favorable response to corticosteroids.
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              Exhaled nitric oxide in pulmonary diseases: a comprehensive review.

              The upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) by inflammatory cytokines and mediators in central and peripheral airway sites can be monitored easily in exhaled air. It is now possible to estimate the predominant site of increased fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO) and its potential pathologic and physiologic role in various pulmonary diseases. In asthma, increased FeNO reflects eosinophilic-mediated inflammatory pathways moderately well in central and/or peripheral airway sites and implies increased inhaled and systemic corticosteroid responsiveness. Recently, five randomized controlled algorithm asthma trials reported only equivocal benefits of adding measurements of FeNO to usual clinical guideline management including spirometry; however, significant design issues may exist. Overall, FeNO measurement at a single expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/s may be an important adjunct for diagnosis and management in selected cases of asthma. This may supplement standard clinical asthma care guidelines, including spirometry, providing a noninvasive window into predominantly large-airway-presumed eosinophilic inflammation. In COPD, large/central airway maximal NO flux and peripheral/small airway/alveolar NO concentration may be normal and the role of FeNO monitoring is less clear and therefore less established than in asthma. Furthermore, concurrent smoking reduces FeNO. Monitoring FeNO in pulmonary hypertension and cystic fibrosis has opened up a window to the role NO may play in their pathogenesis and possible clinical benefits in the management of these diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                N. Engl. J. Med.
                The New England journal of medicine
                1533-4406
                0028-4793
                Sep 24 2015
                : 373
                : 13
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMra1411863
                26398072

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