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      Induction of Metallothionein in Proximal Tubular Cells by Zinc and Its Potential as an Endogenous Antioxidant

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          Background: This study was undertaken to gain further insights into the expression of metallothionein (MT) in kidney, to define the necessary dosage of a metal (zinc) to achieve induction of MT and to evaluate the antioxidative potential of MT in comparison to other more common antioxidative therapeutics, like N-acetyl- L-cysteine (NAC), and endogenous molecules, like glutathione. Methods: MT was measured in renal specimens from cadaver kidneys from patients with chronic diseases (n = 76) and controls (n = 21) by immunohistochemistry. In addition, induction experiments were performed in cell cultures of proximal tubular cells (LCC-PK1) and MT measured on the RNA and protein level (immunohistochemistry, Western and dot blotting). Antioxidative potential of MT was compared to NAC and glutathione. Results: MT was restricted to tubular cells with no differences between controls and patients. Zn caused a dose-dependent increase of MT on the RNA as well as on the protein level (RNA (ratio MT/histone 3.3): control 0.34 ± 0.12; Zn 17 µ M 0.65 ± 0.26; Zn 35 µ M 1.25 ± 0.43 (p < 0.05), Zn 52 µ M 1.35 ± 0.46 (p < 0.05), and protein: 5.8-fold increase from 47 ± 13 mg/g total protein (n = 6) to 272 ± 140 mg/g total protein (n = 6)). The antioxidative effect of MT was equal to NAC and glutathione. Conclusions: Induction of renal MT by zinc is easily achievable and might be an interesting therapeutic and preventive tool against oxidative stress.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Extracellular matrix metabolism in diabetic nephropathy.

          Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in the mesangium and basement membrane of the glomerulus and in the renal tubulointerstitium. This review summarizes the main changes in protein composition of the glomerular mesangium and basement membrane and the evidence that, in the mesangium, these are initiated by changes in glucose metabolism and the formation of advanced glycation end products. Both processes generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The review includes discussion of how ROS may activate intracellular signaling pathways leading to the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors. This in turn leads to change in the expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins and the protease systems responsible for their turnover.
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            Reactive oxygen species-regulated signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy.

            Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidney. TGF-beta1 has been identified as the key mediator of ECM accumulation in diabetic kidney. High glucose induces TGF-beta1 in glomerular mesangial and tubular epithelial cells and in diabetic kidney. Antioxidants inhibit high glucose-induced TGF-beta1 and ECM expression in glomerular mesangial and tubular epithelial cells and ameliorate features of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting that oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic renal injury. High glucose induces intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mesangial and tubular epithelial cells. High glucose-induced ROS in mesangial cells can be effectively blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), NADPH oxidase, and mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I, suggesting that PKC, NADPH oxidase, and mitochondrial metabolism all play a role in high glucose-induced ROS generation. Advanced glycation end products, TGF-beta1, and angiotensin II can also induce ROS generation and may amplify high glucose-activated signaling in diabetic kidney. Both high glucose and ROS activate signal transduction cascade (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription) and transcription factors (nuclear factor-kappaB, activated protein-1, and specificity protein 1) and upregulate TGF-beta1 and ECM genes and proteins. These observations suggest that ROS act as intracellular messengers and integral glucose signaling molecules in diabetic kidney. Future studies elucidating various other target molecules activated by ROS in renal cells cultured under high glucose or in diabetic kidney will allow a better understanding of the final cellular responses to high glucose.
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              Protein kinase C-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vascular tissues of diabetes: role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase.

              Hyperglycemia seems to be an important causative factor in the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the adverse effects of hyperglycemia on vascular cells. Both protein kinase C (PKC) activation and oxidative stress theories have increasingly received attention in recent years. This article shows a PKC-dependent increase in oxidative stress in diabetic vascular tissues. High glucose level stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via a PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in cultured aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and renal mesangial cells. In addition, expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components were shown to be upregulated in vascular tissues and kidney from animal models of diabetes. Furthermore, several agents that were expected to block the mechanism of a PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase clearly inhibited the increased oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as assessed by in vivo electron spin resonance method. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase may be an essential mechanism responsible for increased oxidative stress in diabetes.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                June 2005
                10 June 2005
                : 28
                : 3
                : 127-133
                aDivision of General Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine; bDivision of Pathology, Department of Diagnostic Medicine, Robert Bosch Krankenhaus, Stuttgart, and cMargarete Fischer-Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany; dLaboratory of Cell Regulation and Carcinogenesis NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Md., USA
                84921 Kidney Blood Press Res 2005;28:127–133
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 34, Pages: 7
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/84921
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Reactive oxygen species, Kidney, Tubular cells, Metallothionein, Zinc


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