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      Maintenance of serological memory by polyclonal activation of human memory B cells.

      Science (New York, N.Y.)

      Antibodies, blood, Antibody Formation, Antigens, CD, metabolism, B-Lymphocyte Subsets, immunology, Cell Differentiation, Cell Division, Cells, Cultured, Dinucleoside Phosphates, Humans, Immunization, Immunization, Secondary, Immunoglobulin Class Switching, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulins, Immunologic Memory, Interleukin-15, Lymphocyte Activation, Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Plasma Cells, T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer, Tetanus Toxoid, Time Factors

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          Abstract

          Production of antibodies can last for a lifetime, through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we show that human memory B lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, such as bystander T cell help and CpG DNA. Furthermore, plasma cells secreting antibodies to recall antigens are produced in vivo at levels proportional to the frequency of specific memory B cells, even several years after antigenic stimulation. Although antigen boosting leads to a transient increase in specific antibody levels, ongoing polyclonal activation of memory B cells offers a means to maintain serological memory for a human lifetime.

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          Journal
          12481138
          10.1126/science.1076071

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