In chronic renal failure, substances that are effectively excreted in healthy subjects accumulate in serum. These substances, uremic toxins, include a variety of organic acids. It has been reported that a decrease in the bilirubin (BR) binding capacity occurs in the serum of renal failure patients. 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) has a high affinity for human serum albumin (HSA) and is a potent inhibitor of the serum protein binding of many drugs. We recently reported that CMPF and BR share the binding site for dicarboxylate molecules on the HSA molecule [Pharm Res 1999;16:916–923]. In this study, in order to confirm whether CMPF is involved in the decrease of BR serum binding capacity in chronic renal failure patients, the total concentrations of uremic toxins, CMPF, and indoxyl sulfate (IS) and the free BR concentration in serum from healthy volunteers and renal failure patients were determined. Both total CMPF and IS concentrations correlate with the free BR concentration. However, results from the peroxidase method reveal that IS cannot displace BR under the physiological condition [IS]/[HSA] <1. We, therefore, conclude that CMPF is one of the substances which contribute to the decreased binding capacity of BR in uremic serum.