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      Human Microbiota: A Neglected "Organ" in Precision Medicine

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          Abstract

          Human microbiota and health are increasingly recognized as an important area of biomedical research. The microbiota is considered as indispensable "organ" to humans. Precision medicine is becoming popular as omics-driven research rapidly advances. However, the role of microbiota in precision medicine has been neglected. This review attempts to bridge this gap in understanding the role of microbiota in precision medicine.

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          Most cited references66

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          EGF receptor gene mutations are common in lung cancers from "never smokers" and are associated with sensitivity of tumors to gefitinib and erlotinib.

          Somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are reportedly associated with sensitivity of lung cancers to gefitinib (Iressa), kinase inhibitor. In-frame deletions occur in exon 19, whereas point mutations occur frequently in codon 858 (exon 21). We found from sequencing the EGFR TK domain that 7 of 10 gefitinib-sensitive tumors had similar types of alterations; no mutations were found in eight gefitinib-refractory tumors (P = 0.004). Five of seven tumors sensitive to erlotinib (Tarceva), a related kinase inhibitor for which the clinically relevant target is undocumented, had analogous somatic mutations, as opposed to none of 10 erlotinib-refractory tumors (P = 0.003). Because most mutation-positive tumors were adenocarcinomas from patients who smoked <100 cigarettes in a lifetime ("never smokers"), we screened EGFR exons 2-28 in 15 adenocarcinomas resected from untreated never smokers. Seven tumors had TK domain mutations, in contrast to 4 of 81 non-small cell lung cancers resected from untreated former or current smokers (P = 0.0001). Immunoblotting of lysates from cells transiently transfected with various EGFR constructs demonstrated that, compared to wild-type protein, an exon 19 deletion mutant induced diminished levels of phosphotyrosine, whereas the phosphorylation at tyrosine 1092 of an exon 21 point mutant was inhibited at 10-fold lower concentrations of drug. Collectively, these data show that adenocarcinomas from never smokers comprise a distinct subset of lung cancers, frequently containing mutations within the TK domain of EGFR that are associated with gefitinib and erlotinib sensitivity.
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            Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism -- comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity

            Background Children with autism have often been reported to have gastrointestinal problems that are more frequent and more severe than in children from the general population. Methods Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status were assessed from stool samples of 58 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 39 healthy typical children of similar ages. Stool testing included bacterial and yeast culture tests, lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, elastase, digestion markers, short chain fatty acids (SCFA's), pH, and blood presence. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with a modified six-item GI Severity Index (6-GSI) questionnaire, and autistic symptoms were assessed with the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Results Gastrointestinal symptoms (assessed by the 6-GSI) were strongly correlated with the severity of autism (assessed by the ATEC), (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). Children with 6-GSI scores above 3 had much higher ATEC Total scores than those with 6-GSI-scores of 3 or lower (81.5 +/- 28 vs. 49.0 +/- 21, p = 0.00002). Children with autism had much lower levels of total short chain fatty acids (-27%, p = 0.00002), including lower levels of acetate, proprionate, and valerate; this difference was greater in the children with autism taking probiotics, but also significant in those not taking probiotics. Children with autism had lower levels of species of Bifidobacter (-43%, p = 0.002) and higher levels of species of Lactobacillus (+100%, p = 0.00002), but similar levels of other bacteria and yeast using standard culture growth-based techniques. Lysozyme was somewhat lower in children with autism (-27%, p = 0.04), possibly associated with probiotic usage. Other markers of digestive function were similar in both groups. Conclusions The strong correlation of gastrointestinal symptoms with autism severity indicates that children with more severe autism are likely to have more severe gastrointestinal symptoms and vice versa. It is possible that autism symptoms are exacerbated or even partially due to the underlying gastrointestinal problems. The low level of SCFA's was partly associated with increased probiotic use, and probably partly due to either lower production (less sacchrolytic fermentation by beneficial bacteria and/or lower intake of soluble fiber) and/or greater absorption into the body (due to longer transit time and/or increased gut permeability).
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              Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal.

              We have previously shown that gut microbial fermentation of prebiotics promotes satiety and lowers hunger and energy intake in humans. In rodents, these effects are associated with an increase in plasma gut peptide concentrations, which are involved in appetite regulation and glucose homeostasis. Our aim was to examine the effects of prebiotic supplementation on satiety and related hormones during a test meal for human volunteers by using a noninvasive micromethod for blood sampling to measure plasma gut peptide concentrations. This study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 10 healthy adults (5 men and 5 women) were randomly assigned to groups that received either 16 g prebiotics/d or 16 g dextrin maltose/d for 2 wk. Meal tolerance tests were performed in the morning to measure the following: hydrogen breath test, satiety, glucose homeostasis, and related hormone response. We show that the prebiotic treatment increased breath-hydrogen excretion (a marker of gut microbiota fermentation) by approximately 3-fold and lowered hunger rates. Prebiotics increased plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY concentrations, whereas postprandial plasma glucose responses decreased after the standardized meal. The areas under the curve for plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and breath-hydrogen excretion measured after the meal (0-60 min) were significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P = 0.007). The glucose response was inversely correlated with the breath-hydrogen excretion areas under the curve (0-180 min; r = -0.73, P = 0.02). Prebiotic supplementation was associated with an increase in plasma gut peptide concentrations (glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY), which may contribute in part to changes in appetite sensation and glucose excursion responses after a meal in healthy subjects.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                International Biological and Medical Journals Publishing House Co., Limited (Room E16, 3/f, Yongda Commercial Building, No.97, Bonham Stand (Sheung Wan), HongKong )
                2411-2917
                30 December 2015
                30 December 2015
                : 1
                : 2
                : 63-72
                Affiliations
                From Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, No. 20, Dongdajie, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071, China
                State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, China
                From Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, No. 20, Dongdajie, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Ruifu Yang, Email: ruifuyang@ 123456gmail.com .
                Article
                10.11979/idtm.201502005
                125454d4-6b00-4bc8-925c-04318f7368ef

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 114, Pages: 10
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                Categories
                Review

                Medicine,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Human microbiota,Medicine,Health,Precision
                Medicine, Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Human microbiota, Medicine, Health, Precision

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