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      Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey

      research-article
      a , b , a , b , *
      Psychiatry Research
      Published by Elsevier B.V.
      COVID-19, Mental health, Anxiety, Depressive symptoms, Sleep

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          Highlights

          • The COVID-19 outbreak significantly affects the mental health of Chinese public

          • During the outbreak, young people had a higher risk of anxiety than older people

          • Spending too much time thinking about the outbreak is harmful to mental health

          • Healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep

          Abstract

          China has been severely affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) since December, 2019. We aimed to assess the mental health burden of Chinese public during the outbreak, and to explore the potential influence factors. Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 7,236 self-selected volunteers assessed with demographic information, COVID-19 related knowledge, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. The overall prevalence of GAD, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality of the public were 35.1%, 20.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. Young people reported a significantly higher prevalence of GAD and depressive symptoms than older people. Compared with other occupational group, healthcare workers were more likely to have poor sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (< 35 years) and time spent focusing on the COVID-19 (≥ 3 hours per day) were associated with GAD, and healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep quality. Our study identified a major mental health burden of the public during the COVID-19 outbreak. Young people, people spending too much time thinking about the outbreak, and healthcare workers were at high risk of mental illness. Continuous surveillance of the psychological consequences for outbreaks should become routine as part of preparedness efforts worldwide.

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          Most cited references8

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          A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

          Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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            Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

            In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Polysomnographically measured sleep abnormalities in PTSD: a meta-analytic review.

              Although sleep complaints are common among patients with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), polysomnographic studies examining sleep abnormalities in PTSD have produced inconsistent results. To clarify discrepant findings, we conducted a meta-analytic review of 20 polysomnographic studies comparing sleep in people with and without PTSD. Results showed that PTSD patients had more stage 1 sleep, less slow wave sleep, and greater rapid-eye-movement density compared to people without PTSD. We also conducted exploratory analyses aimed at examining potential moderating variables (age, sex, and comorbid depression and substance use disorders). Overall, studies with a greater proportion of male participants or a low rate of comorbid depression tended to find more PTSD-related sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that sleep abnormalities exist in PTSD, and that some of the inconsistencies in prior findings may be explained by moderating variables.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Psychiatry Res
                Psychiatry Res
                Psychiatry Research
                Published by Elsevier B.V.
                0165-1781
                1872-7123
                12 April 2020
                12 April 2020
                : 112954
                Affiliations
                [a ]The 6th Affiliated hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Nanshan Hospital Affiliated to Shenzhen University Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518052, People's Republic of China
                [b ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Union Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, 518052, People's Republic of China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: The 6th Affiliated hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Nanshan Hospital Affiliated to Shenzhen University Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518052, People's Republic of China. zhaoning2018@ 123456email.szu.edu.cn 743159984@ 123456qq.com
                Article
                S0165-1781(20)30607-7 112954
                10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954
                7152913
                32325383
                125925a6-da77-45ac-bd7a-ff63d7a7691d
                © 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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                Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                covid-19,mental health,anxiety,depressive symptoms,sleep
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                covid-19, mental health, anxiety, depressive symptoms, sleep

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