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Is Social Network Diversity Associated with Tooth Loss among Older Japanese Adults?

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      Abstract

      Background

      We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors.

      Methods

      Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10–19, 1–9, and 0).

      Results

      Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2). The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation), marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health), and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.11). Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste), significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08)).

      Conclusion

      Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 31

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      Global burden of oral conditions in 1990-2010: a systematic analysis.

      The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study produced comparable estimates of the burden of 291 diseases and injuries in 1990, 2005, and 2010. This article reports on the global burden of untreated caries, severe periodontitis, and severe tooth loss in 2010 and compares those figures with new estimates for 1990. We used disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) metrics to quantify burden. Oral conditions affected 3.9 billion people, and untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition evaluated for the entire GBD 2010 Study (global prevalence of 35% for all ages combined). Oral conditions combined accounted for 15 million DALYs globally (1.9% of all YLDs; 0.6% of all DALYs), implying an average health loss of 224 years per 100,000 population. DALYs due to oral conditions increased 20.8% between 1990 and 2010, mainly due to population growth and aging. While DALYs due to severe periodontitis and untreated caries increased, those due to severe tooth loss decreased. DALYs differed by age groups and regions, but not by genders. The findings highlight the challenge in responding to the diversity of urgent oral health needs worldwide, particularly in developing communities.
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        Association between body-mass index and risk of death in more than 1 million Asians.

        Most studies that have evaluated the association between the body-mass index (BMI) and the risks of death from any cause and from specific causes have been conducted in populations of European origin. We performed pooled analyses to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of death among more than 1.1 million persons recruited in 19 cohorts in Asia. The analyses included approximately 120,700 deaths that occurred during a mean follow-up period of 9.2 years. Cox regression models were used to adjust for confounding factors. In the cohorts of East Asians, including Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans, the lowest risk of death was seen among persons with a BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) in the range of 22.6 to 27.5. The risk was elevated among persons with BMI levels either higher or lower than that range--by a factor of up to 1.5 among those with a BMI of more than 35.0 and by a factor of 2.8 among those with a BMI of 15.0 or less. A similar U-shaped association was seen between BMI and the risks of death from cancer, from cardiovascular diseases, and from other causes. In the cohorts comprising Indians and Bangladeshis, the risks of death from any cause and from causes other than cancer or cardiovascular disease were increased among persons with a BMI of 20.0 or less, as compared with those with a BMI of 22.6 to 25.0, whereas there was no excess risk of either death from any cause or cause-specific death associated with a high BMI. Underweight was associated with a substantially increased risk of death in all Asian populations. The excess risk of death associated with a high BMI, however, was seen among East Asians but not among Indians and Bangladeshis.
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          Social network determinants of depression.

          The etiology of depression has long been thought to include social environmental factors. To quantitatively explore the novel possibility of person-to-person spread and network-level determination of depressive symptoms, analyses were performed on a densely interconnected social network of 12,067 people assessed repeatedly over 32 years as part of the Framingham Heart Study. Longitudinal statistical models were used to examine whether depressive symptoms in one person were associated with similar scores in friends, co-workers, siblings, spouses and neighbors. Depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D scores that were available for subjects in three waves measured between 1983 and 2001. Results showed both low and high CES-D scores (and classification as being depressed) in a given period were strongly correlated with such scores in one's friends and neighbors. This association extended up to three degrees of separation (to one's friends' friends' friends). Female friends appear to be especially influential in the spread of depression from one person to another. The results are robust to multiple network simulation and estimation methods, suggesting that network phenomena appear relevant to the epidemiology of depression and would benefit from further study.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of International and Community Oral Health, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Japan
            [2 ]Center for Preventive Medical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
            [3 ]Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan
            [4 ]Division of Dental Sociology, Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, Yokosuka, Japan
            [5 ]Department of Social Welfare, Nihon Fukushi University, Mihama, Japan
            [6 ]Division of Oral Health Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, School of Health and Social Services, Saitama Prefectural University, Koshigaya, Japan
            [7 ]Department of Policy Studies, Aichi Gakuin University, Nisshin, Japan
            [8 ]Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
            Taipei Veterans General Hospital, TAIWAN
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: JA KK IK. Performed the experiments: JA TY MS KI KS KK KO. Analyzed the data: JA KK TY MS KI KS IK KO. Wrote the paper: JA KK TY MS KI KS IK KO.

            Contributors
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            26 July 2016
            2016
            : 11
            : 7
            27459102
            4961379
            10.1371/journal.pone.0159970
            PONE-D-16-10615
            (Editor)
            © 2016 Aida et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Counts
            Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
            Product
            Funding
            Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001700, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology;
            Award ID: Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science;
            Award ID: 22330172, 22390400, 23243070, 23590786, 23790710, 24390469, 24530698, 24653150, 24683018, 25253052, 25870573, 25870881, 22390400, 22592327
            Funded by: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (JP)
            Award ID: H22-Choju-Shitei-008, H24-Junkankitou-Ippan-007, H24-Chikyukibo-Ippan-009, H24-Choju-Wakate-009, H25-Kenki-Wakate-015, H25-Irryo-Shitei-003 (Fukkou), H26-Choju-Ippan-006
            Funded by: Japan Foundation for Aging and Health
            Award ID: Research Support Grant
            Award Recipient : ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8405-9872
            Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100007312, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology;
            Award ID: 24-17, 24-23
            This study was supported by a grant of the Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology, Japan (MEXT), 2009-2013, for the Center for Well-being and Society, Nihon Fukushi University, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (22330172, 22390400, 23243070, 23590786, 23790710, 24390469, 24530698, 24653150, 24683018, 25253052, 25870573, 25870881, 22390400, 22592327) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The study was also supported by a Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant, and grants for Comprehensive Research on Aging and Health (H22-Choju-Shitei-008, H24-Junkankitou-Ippan-007, H24-Chikyukibo-Ippan-009, H24-Choju-Wakate-009, H25-Kenki-Wakate-015, H25-Irryo-Shitei-003 (Fukkou), H26-Choju-Ippan-006) from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, Japan Foundation for Aging and Health Research Support Grant, and also a grant from National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (No: 24-17; Chiyoe Murata, No:24-23;Tami Saitou). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Categories
            Research Article
            Computer and Information Sciences
            Network Analysis
            Social Networks
            Social Sciences
            Sociology
            Social Networks
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Oral Medicine
            Oral Health
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Anatomy
            Digestive System
            Teeth
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Anatomy
            Digestive System
            Teeth
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Anatomy
            Head
            Jaw
            Teeth
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Anatomy
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            Jaw
            Teeth
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Physiology
            Digestive Physiology
            Dentition
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Physiology
            Digestive Physiology
            Dentition
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Public and Occupational Health
            Behavioral and Social Aspects of Health
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            Health Care
            Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
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            Public and Occupational Health
            Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Endocrinology
            Endocrine Disorders
            Diabetes Mellitus
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Metabolic Disorders
            Diabetes Mellitus
            Physical Sciences
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            Custom metadata
            All data used are from the JAGES study. All enquiries are to be addressed at the data management committee via e-mail: dataadmin.ml@ 123456jages.net . All JAGES datasets have ethical or legal restrictions for public deposition due to inclusion of sensitive information from the human participants.

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