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      Laboratory criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome: communication from the SSC of the ISTH

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , the Subcommittee on Lupus Anticoagulant/Antiphospholipid Antibodies

      Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 34

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          Predictors of Pregnancy Outcomes in Patients With Lupus: A Cohort Study.

          Because systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects women of reproductive age, pregnancy is a major concern.
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            Anti-prothrombin (aPT) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies and the risk of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome. A systematic review.

            Antibodies to prothrombin are detected by directly coating prothrombin on irradiated ELISA plates (aPT) or by using the phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as antigen (aPS/PT). Although these antibodies have both been associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and a correlation between the two assays have been reported, it seems that aPT and aPS/PT belong to different populations of autoantibodies. It was our objective to systematically review the available evidence on aPT and aPS/PT antibodies and the risk of thrombosis in APS. Medline-reports published between 1988 and 2013 investigating aPT and aPS/PT as a risk factor for thrombosis were included. Whenever possible, antibody isotype(s) and site of thrombosis were analysed. This systematic review is based on available data from more than 7,000 patients and controls from 38 studies analysing aPT and 10 aPS/PT. Antibodies to prothrombin (both aPT and aPS/PT) increased the risk of thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-3.5). aPS/PT seemed to represent a stronger risk factor for thrombosis, both arterial and/or venous than aPT (OR 5.11; 95%CI 4.2-6.3 and OR 1.82; 95%CI 1.44-2.75, respectively). In conclusion, routine measurement of aPS/PT (but not aPT) might be useful in establishing the thrombotic risk of patients with previous thrombosis and/or systemic lupus erythematosus. Their inclusion as laboratory criteria for the APS should be indisputably further explored.
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              Antiphospholipid antibodies and risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in young women in the RATIO study: a case-control study.

              Arterial thrombosis is a major clinical manifestation of the antiphospholipid syndrome, which is an autoimmune disease found mostly in young women. Although the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies in individuals who have a thrombotic event is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome, the risk of arterial thrombosis associated with antiphospholipid antibodies in the general population is unclear. In RATIO (Risk of Arterial Thrombosis In relation to Oral contraceptives), a large multicentre population-based case-control study, we enrolled women aged under 50 years who were admitted to hospital at 16 centres with first ischaemic stroke or myocardial infarction between January, 1990, and October, 1995. An additional 59 women who presented with ischaemic stroke at the University Medical Centre Utrecht between 1996 and 2001 were also enrolled. Information on cardiovascular risk factors (such as oral contraceptive use, smoking, and hypertension) were assessed with a standard questionnaire. During the second phase (1998-2002), blood samples were taken to measure antiphospholipid antibody profiles (lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin IgG, anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I IgG, and antiprothrombin IgG) and to determine genetic prothrombotic risk factors (factor V G1691A variant, prothrombin G20210A variant, and factor XIII 204Phe allele). 175 patients with ischaemic stroke, 203 patients with myocardial infarction, and 628 healthy controls were included. Patients were frequency matched with controls for age, residence area, and index year. Lupus anticoagulant was found in 30 (17%) patients with ischaemic stroke, six (3%) patients with myocardial infarction, and four (0.7%) in the control group. The odds ratio for myocardial infarction was 5.3 (95% CI 1.4-20.8), which increased to 21.6 (1.9-242.0) in women who used oral contraceptives and 33.7 (6.0-189.0) in those who smoked. The odds ratio for ischaemic stroke was 43.1 (12.2-152.0), which increased to 201.0 (22.1-1828.0) in women who used oral contraceptives and 87.0 (14.5-523.0) in those who smoked. In women who had anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies, the risk of ischaemic stroke was 2.3 (1.4-3.7), but the risk of myocardial infarction was not increased (0.9, 0.5-1.6). Neither anticardiolipin nor antiprothrombin antibodies affected the risk of myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke. Our results suggest that lupus anticoagulant is a major risk factor for arterial thrombotic events in young women, and the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors increases the risk even further. Netherlands Heart Foundation and Leducq Foundation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
                J Thromb Haemost
                Wiley
                15387933
                April 2018
                April 2018
                March 13 2018
                : 16
                : 4
                : 809-813
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Coagulation Laboratory; Department of Laboratory Medicine; Ghent University Hospital; Ghent Belgium
                [2 ]Departments of Medicine and Pathology; Duke University Medical Center; Durham NC USA
                [3 ]Cardiology Department; University of Padova; Padova Italy
                [4 ]Department of Biochemistry; Maastricht University; Maastricht the Netherlands
                [5 ]Synapse BV; Maastricht the Netherlands
                Article
                10.1111/jth.13976
                29532986
                © 2018

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