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      OCTN: A Small Transporter Subfamily with Great Relevance to Human Pathophysiology, Drug Discovery, and Diagnostics

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 2

      SLAS DISCOVERY: Advancing Life Sciences R&D

      SAGE Publications

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          Membrane transporters in drug development.

          Membrane transporters can be major determinants of the pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy profiles of drugs. This presents several key questions for drug development, including which transporters are clinically important in drug absorption and disposition, and which in vitro methods are suitable for studying drug interactions with these transporters. In addition, what criteria should trigger follow-up clinical studies, and which clinical studies should be conducted if needed. In this article, we provide the recommendations of the International Transporter Consortium on these issues, and present decision trees that are intended to help guide clinical studies on the currently recognized most important drug transporter interactions. The recommendations are generally intended to support clinical development and filing of a new drug application. Overall, it is advised that the timing of transporter investigations should be driven by efficacy, safety and clinical trial enrolment questions (for example, exclusion and inclusion criteria), as well as a need for further understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties of the drug molecule, and information required for drug labelling.
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            Three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins from genomic sequencing.

            We show that amino acid covariation in proteins, extracted from the evolutionary sequence record, can be used to fold transmembrane proteins. We use this technique to predict previously unknown 3D structures for 11 transmembrane proteins (with up to 14 helices) from their sequences alone. The prediction method (EVfold_membrane) applies a maximum entropy approach to infer evolutionary covariation in pairs of sequence positions within a protein family and then generates all-atom models with the derived pairwise distance constraints. We benchmark the approach with blinded de novo computation of known transmembrane protein structures from 23 families, demonstrating unprecedented accuracy of the method for large transmembrane proteins. We show how the method can predict oligomerization, functional sites, and conformational changes in transmembrane proteins. With the rapid rise in large-scale sequencing, more accurate and more comprehensive information on evolutionary constraints can be decoded from genetic variation, greatly expanding the repertoire of transmembrane proteins amenable to modeling by this method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Carnitine--metabolism and functions.

               J. Bremer (1983)
              Carnitine was detected at the beginning of this century, but it was nearly forgotten among biochemists until its importance in fatty acid metabolism was established 50 years later. In the last 30 years, interest in the metabolism and functions of carnitine has steadily increased. Carnitine is synthesized in most eucaryotic organisms, although a few insects (and most likely some newborn animals) require it as a nutritional factor (vitamin BT). Carnitine biosynthesis is initiated by methylation of lysine. The trimethyllysine formed is subsequently converted to butyrobetaine in all tissues; the butyrobetaine is finally hydroxylated to carnitine in the liver and, in some animals, in the kidneys (see Fig. 1). It is released from these tissues and is then actively taken up by all other tissues. The turnover of carnitine in the body is slow, and the regulation of its synthesis is still incompletely understood. Microorganisms (e.g., in the intestine) can metabolize carnitine to trimethylamine, dehydrocarnitine (beta-keto-gamma-trimethylaminobutyric acid), betaine, and possibly to trimethylaminoacetone. In some insects carnitine can be converted to methylcholine, presumably with trimethylaminoacetone as an intermediate (see Fig. 3). In mammals the unphysiological isomer (+) carnitine is converted to trimethylaminoacetone. The natural isomer (-)carnitine is excreted unchanged in the urine, and it is still uncertain if it is degraded in mammalian tissues at all (Fig. 2). The only firmly established function of carnitine is its function as a carrier of activated fatty acids and activated acetate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Two acyl-CoA:carnitine acyltransferases with overlapping chain-length specificities have been isolated: one acetyltransferase taking part in the transport of acetyl and short-chain acyl groups and one palmitoyltransferase taking part in the transport of long-chain acyl groups. An additional octanoyltransferase has been isolated from liver peroxisomes. Although a carnitine translocase that allows carnitine and acylcarnitine to penetrate the inner mitochondrial membrane has been deduced from functional studies (see Fig. 5), this translocase has not been isolated as a protein separate from the acyltransferases. Carnitine acetyltransferase and carnitine octanoyltransferase are also found in the peroxisomes. In these organelles the enzymes may be important in the transfer of acyl groups, which are produced by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes, to the mitochondria for oxidation in the citric acid cycle. The carnitine-dependent transport of activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane is a regulated process. Malonyl-CoA inh
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                SLAS DISCOVERY: Advancing Life Sciences R&D
                SLAS DISCOVERY: Advancing Life Sciences R&D
                SAGE Publications
                2472-5552
                2472-5560
                December 07 2018
                February 2019
                December 07 2018
                February 2019
                : 24
                : 2
                : 89-110
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department DiBEST (Biologia, Ecologia, Scienze della Terra), Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biotechnology, University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende, Italy
                [2 ]CNR Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnology, Bari, Italy
                Article
                10.1177/2472555218812821
                © 2019

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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