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      Pluripotent epigenetic regulator OBP-801 maintains filtering blebs in glaucoma filtration surgery model

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          Abstract

          Inhibition of fibrosis is indispensable for maintaining filtering blebs after glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of a pluripotent epigenetic regulator OBP-801 (OBP) to ameliorate extracellular matrix formation in a rabbit model of GFS. Rabbits that underwent GFS were treated with OBP. The gene expression profiles and intraocular pressure (IOP) were monitored until 30 postoperative days. The bleb tissues were evaluated for tissue fibrosis at 30 postoperative days. In in vitro models, OBP interfered the functions of diverse genes during the wound-healing process. In in vivo GFS models, the expressions of TGF-β3, MMP-2, TIMP-2 and 3, LOX, COL1A and SERPINH1 were significantly inhibited at 30 postoperative days in the OBP group compared with those in the vehicle control group. OBP treatment involving subconjunctival injection or eye drops showed no adverse effects, and reduced levels of α-SMA and collagen deposition at the surgical wound site. OBP maintained the long-lived bleb without scar formation, and IOP was lower at 30 postoperative days compared with the vehicle control group. These findings suggest that OBP is an effective and useful candidate low-molecular-weight agent for improving wound healing and surgical outcomes in a rabbit model of GFS.

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          Mechanisms of fibrosis: therapeutic translation for fibrotic disease.

          Fibrosis is a pathological feature of most chronic inflammatory diseases. Fibrosis, or scarring, is defined by the accumulation of excess extracellular matrix components. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process eventually leads to organ malfunction and death. Fibrosis affects nearly every tissue in the body. Here we discuss how key components of the innate and adaptive immune response contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. We also describe how cell-intrinsic changes in important structural cells can perpetuate the fibrotic response by regulating the differentiation, recruitment, proliferation and activation of extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts. Finally, we highlight some of the key mechanisms and pathways of fibrosis that are being targeted as potential therapies for a variety of important human diseases.
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            Fibrosis is defined by the overgrowth, hardening, and/or scarring of various tissues and is attributed to excess deposition of extracellular matrix components including collagen. Fibrosis is the end result of chronic inflammatory reactions induced by a variety of stimuli including persistent infections, autoimmune reactions, allergic responses, chemical insults, radiation, and tissue injury. Although current treatments for fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, systemic sclerosis, progressive kidney disease, and cardiovascular fibrosis typically target the inflammatory response, there is accumulating evidence that the mechanisms driving fibrogenesis are distinct from those regulating inflammation. In fact, some studies have suggested that ongoing inflammation is needed to reverse established and progressive fibrosis. The key cellular mediator of fibrosis is the myofibroblast, which when activated serves as the primary collagen-producing cell. Myofibroblasts are generated from a variety of sources including resident mesenchymal cells, epithelial and endothelial cells in processes termed epithelial/endothelial-mesenchymal (EMT/EndMT) transition, as well as from circulating fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes that are derived from bone-marrow stem cells. Myofibroblasts are activated by a variety of mechanisms, including paracrine signals derived from lymphocytes and macrophages, autocrine factors secreted by myofibroblasts, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) produced by pathogenic organisms that interact with pattern recognition receptors (i.e. TLRs) on fibroblasts. Cytokines (IL-13, IL-21, TGF-beta1), chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1beta), angiogenic factors (VEGF), growth factors (PDGF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), acute phase proteins (SAP), caspases, and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (ANG II) have been identified as important regulators of fibrosis and are being investigated as potential targets of antifibrotic drugs. This review explores our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis. 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
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              Fibrosis is a pathological scarring process that leads to destruction of organ architecture and impairment of organ function. Chronic loss of organ function in most organs, including bone marrow, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, and skin, is associated with fibrosis, contributing to an estimated one third of natural deaths worldwide. Effective therapies to prevent or to even reverse existing fibrotic lesions are not yet available in any organ. There is hope that an understanding of common fibrosis pathways will lead to development of antifibrotic therapies that are effective in all of these tissues in the future. Here we review common and organ-specific pathways of tissue fibrosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mueno@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                1 December 2020
                1 December 2020
                2020
                : 10
                : 20936
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.272458.e, ISNI 0000 0001 0667 4960, Department of Ophthalmology, , Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, ; 465 Kajii-cho, Hirokoji-agaru, Kawaramachi-dori, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, 602-8566 Japan
                [2 ]GRID grid.272458.e, ISNI 0000 0001 0667 4960, Department of Frontier Medical Science and Technology for Ophthalmology, , Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, ; Kyoto, 602-8566 Japan
                [3 ]GRID grid.459865.3, Oncolys BioPharma, Inc., ; Tokyo, 106-0032 Japan
                Article
                77811
                10.1038/s41598-020-77811-7
                7708845
                33262357
                126ec8a8-9209-4c79-bf38-c67118b36ee0
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 14 July 2020
                : 18 November 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: Oncolys BioPharma, Inc., Japan
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science;
                Award ID: JP18K09455
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                glaucoma,experimental models of disease,drug development,molecular medicine
                Uncategorized
                glaucoma, experimental models of disease, drug development, molecular medicine

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