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      Protein Never in Mitosis Gene A Interacting-1 regulates calpain activity and the degradation of cyclooxygenase-2 in endothelial cells


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          The peptidyl-proline isomerase, Protein Never in Mitosis Gene A Interacting-1 (PIN1), regulates turnover of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) stimulated with E. coli endotoxin (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN). Degradation of iNOS was reduced by a calpain inhibitor, suggesting that PIN1 may affect induction of other calpain-sensitive inflammatory proteins, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in MAEC.


          MAEC, transduced with lentivirus encoding an inactive control short hairpin (sh) RNA or one targeting PIN1 that reduced PIN1 by 85%, were used. Cells were treated with LPS/IFN, calpain inhibitors (carbobenzoxy-valinyl-phenylalaninal (zVF), PD150606), cycloheximide and COX inhibitors to determine the effect of PIN1 depletion on COX-2 and calpain.


          LPS or IFN alone did not induce COX-2. However, treatment with 10 μg LPS plus 20 ng IFN per ml induced COX-2 protein 10-fold in Control shRNA MAEC. Induction was significantly greater (47-fold) in PIN1 shRNA cells. COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 production increased 3-fold in KD MAEC, but did not increase in Control cells. The additional increase in COX-2 protein due to PIN1 depletion was post-transcriptional, as induction of COX-2 mRNA by LPS/IFN was the same in cells containing or lacking PIN1. Instead, the loss of COX-2 protein, after treatment with cycloheximide to block protein synthesis, was reduced in cells lacking PIN1 in comparison with Control cells, indicating that degradation of the enzyme was reduced. zVF and PD150606 each enhanced the induction of COX-2 by LPS/IFN. zVF also slowed the loss of COX-2 after treatment with cycloheximide, and COX-2 was degraded by exogenous μ-calpain in vitro. In contrast to iNOS, physical interaction between COX-2 and PIN1 was not detected, suggesting that effects of PIN1 on calpain, rather than COX-2 itself, affect COX-2 degradation. While cathepsin activity was unaltered, depletion of PIN1 reduced calpain activity by 55% in comparison with Control shRNA cells.


          PIN1 reduced calpain activity and slowed the degradation of COX-2 in MAEC, an effect recapitulated by an inhibitor of calpain. Given the sensitivity of COX-2 and iNOS to calpain, PIN1 may normally limit induction of these and other calpain substrates by maintaining calpain activity in endothelial cells.

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          Most cited references42

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          The calpain system.

          The calpain system originally comprised three molecules: two Ca2+-dependent proteases, mu-calpain and m-calpain, and a third polypeptide, calpastatin, whose only known function is to inhibit the two calpains. Both mu- and m-calpain are heterodimers containing an identical 28-kDa subunit and an 80-kDa subunit that shares 55-65% sequence homology between the two proteases. The crystallographic structure of m-calpain reveals six "domains" in the 80-kDa subunit: 1). a 19-amino acid NH2-terminal sequence; 2). and 3). two domains that constitute the active site, IIa and IIb; 4). domain III; 5). an 18-amino acid extended sequence linking domain III to domain IV; and 6). domain IV, which resembles the penta EF-hand family of polypeptides. The single calpastatin gene can produce eight or more calpastatin polypeptides ranging from 17 to 85 kDa by use of different promoters and alternative splicing events. The physiological significance of these different calpastatins is unclear, although all bind to three different places on the calpain molecule; binding to at least two of the sites is Ca2+ dependent. Since 1989, cDNA cloning has identified 12 additional mRNAs in mammals that encode polypeptides homologous to domains IIa and IIb of the 80-kDa subunit of mu- and m-calpain, and calpain-like mRNAs have been identified in other organisms. The molecules encoded by these mRNAs have not been isolated, so little is known about their properties. How calpain activity is regulated in cells is still unclear, but the calpains ostensibly participate in a variety of cellular processes including remodeling of cytoskeletal/membrane attachments, different signal transduction pathways, and apoptosis. Deregulated calpain activity following loss of Ca2+ homeostasis results in tissue damage in response to events such as myocardial infarcts, stroke, and brain trauma.
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            The prolyl isomerase PIN1: a pivotal new twist in phosphorylation signalling and disease.

            Protein phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes by causing changes in protein conformation. The prolyl isomerase PIN1 has been identified as a regulator of phosphorylation signalling that catalyses the conversion of specific phosphorylated motifs between the two completely distinct conformations in a subset of proteins. PIN1 regulates diverse cellular processes, including growth-signal responses, cell-cycle progression, cellular stress responses, neuronal function and immune responses. In line with the diverse physiological roles of PIN1, it has also been linked to several diseases that include cancer, Alzheimer's disease and asthma, and thus it might represent a novel therapeutic target.
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              Regulation of NF-kappaB signaling by Pin1-dependent prolyl isomerization and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of p65/RelA.

              The transcription factor NF-kappaB is activated by the degradation of its inhibitor IkappaBalpha, resulting in its nuclear translocation. However, the mechanism by which nuclear NF-kappaB is subsequently regulated is not clear. Here we demonstrate that NF-kappaB function is regulated by Pin1-mediated prolyl isomerization and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of its p65/RelA subunit. Upon cytokine treatment, Pin1 binds to the pThr254-Pro motif in p65 and inhibits p65 binding to IkappaBalpha, resulting in increased nuclear accumulation and protein stability of p65 and enhanced NF-kappaB activity. Significantly, Pin1-deficient mice and cells are refractory to NF-kappaB activation by cytokine signals. Moreover, the stability of p65 is controlled by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, facilitated by a cytokine signal inhibitor, SOCS-1, acting as a ubiquitin ligase. These findings uncover two important mechanisms of regulating NF-kappaB signaling and offer new insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of some human diseases such as cancers.

                Author and article information

                J Inflamm (Lond)
                Journal of Inflammation (London, England)
                BioMed Central
                22 June 2009
                : 6
                : 20
                [1 ]Division of Pharmacology, The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, and The Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
                [2 ]Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.
                Copyright © 2009 Liu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 16 February 2009
                : 22 June 2009



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