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      An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

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          Abstract

          Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea.

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          Most cited references 154

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          Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

          Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler's diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (entero-pathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens.
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            Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

             M Lequin (2005)
            This brief note addresses the historical background of the invention of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These assays were developed independently and simultaneously by the research group of Peter Perlmann and Eva Engvall at Stockholm University in Sweden and by the research group of Anton Schuurs and Bauke van Weemen in The Netherlands. Today, fully automated instruments in medical laboratories around the world use the immunoassay principle with an enzyme as the reporter label for routine measurements of innumerable analytes in patient samples. The impact of EIA/ELISA is reflected in the overwhelmingly large number of times it has appeared as a keyword in the literature since the 1970s. Clinicians and their patients, medical laboratories, in vitro diagnostics manufacturers, and worldwide healthcare systems owe much to these four inventors.
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              Zoonotic aspects of rotaviruses.

              Rotaviruses are important enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Group A rotaviruses (GARVs) account for up to 1 million children deaths each year, chiefly in developing countries and human vaccines are now available in many countries. Rotavirus-associated enteritis is a major problem in livestock animals, notably in young calves and piglets. Early in the epidemiological GARV studies in humans, either sporadic cases or epidemics by atypical, animal-like GARV strains were described. Complete genome sequencing of human and animal GARV strains has revealed a striking genetic heterogeneity in the 11 double stranded RNA segments across different rotavirus strains and has provided evidence for frequent intersections between the evolution of human and animal rotaviruses, as a result of multiple, repeated events of interspecies transmission and subsequent adaptation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Vet Sci
                J. Vet. Sci
                JVS
                Journal of Veterinary Science
                The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
                1229-845X
                1976-555X
                March 2014
                19 March 2014
                : 15
                : 1
                : 1-17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Tel: +1-515-294-1083; Fax: +1-515-294-6619; kyoon@ 123456iastate.edu
                Article
                10.4142/jvs.2014.15.1.1
                3973752
                24378583
                © 2014 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development, Rural Development Administration, Korea
                Award ID: PJ008970
                Categories
                Review

                Veterinary medicine

                calf diarrhea, intervention, etiology

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