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      Human Apo-Lactoferrin Enhances Angiogenesis Mediated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A in vivo


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          Background: Lactoferrin, LF, a multifunctional iron- and heparin-binding protein, present in exocrine body secretions and leukocytes, is remarkably resistant to proteolysis. Ingested bovine iron-unsaturated LF, apo-bLF, suppresses VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis in a previously described rat mesentery angiogenesis assay, possibly explaining, at least in part, its established anticancer effect in rats and mice. Methods: Using the same experimental system, we have now studied the effect of (i) ingested human apo-LF, apo-hLF, on angiogenesis mediated by VEGF-A and bFGF, (ii) ingested human iron-saturated LF, holo-hLF, on VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis and (iii) subcutaneous continuously infused apo-hLF on VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis. Results: Ingested holo-hLF did not affect VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis. Ingested apo-hLF (from one and the same batch) significantly enhanced VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis but did not affect bFGF-mediated angiogenesis. Moreover, subcutaneously infused apo-hLF also significantly stimulated VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis. Conclusion: Taken together, the data suggest that apo-hLF exerts a specific proangiogenic effect in VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis. Clearly, human and bovine apo-LF exert opposite effects on VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis. Differences in molecular features between human and bovine LFs of possible significance for the outcome are discussed. In hypoxia, compensatory collateral circulation is mediated primarily by VEGF-A. We hypothesize that systemically administered apo-hLF may promote collateral blood vessel formation at hypoxic sites in normal tissue, thus counteracting ischemia and infarction.

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          Most cited references 55

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           M Ivan,  Theresa Kim,  A Salic (2001)
          HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) is a transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to changes in oxygen availability. In the presence of oxygen, HIF is targeted for destruction by an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). We found that human pVHL binds to a short HIF-derived peptide when a conserved proline residue at the core of this peptide is hydroxylated. Because proline hydroxylation requires molecular oxygen and Fe(2+), this protein modification may play a key role in mammalian oxygen sensing.
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            Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor: a critical cytokine in tumor angiogenesis and a potential target for diagnosis and therapy.

             Harold Dvorak (2002)
            Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), the founding member of the vascular permeability factor (VPF)/VEGF family of proteins, is an important angiogenic cytokine with critical roles in tumor angiogenesis. This article reviews the literature with regard to VEGF-A's multiple functions, the mechanisms by which it induces angiogenesis, and its current and projected roles in clinical oncology. VEGF-A is a multifunctional cytokine that is widely expressed by tumor cells and that acts through receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and neuropilin) that are expressed on vascular endothelium and on some other cells. It increases microvascular permeability, induces endothelial cell migration and division, reprograms gene expression, promotes endothelial cell survival, prevents senescence, and induces angiogenesis. Recently, VEGF-A has also been shown to induce lymphangiogenesis. Measurements of circulating levels of VEGF-A may have value in estimating prognosis, and VEGF-A and its receptors are potential targets for therapy. Recognized as the single most important angiogenic cytokine, VEGF-A has a central role in tumor biology and will likely have an important role in future approaches designed to evaluate patient prognosis. It may also become an important target for cancer therapy.
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              Blockade of RAGE-amphoterin signalling suppresses tumour growth and metastases.

              The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a multi-ligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, interacts with distinct molecules implicated in homeostasis, development and inflammation, and certain diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Engagement of RAGE by a ligand triggers activation of key cell signalling pathways, such as p21ras, MAP kinases, NF-kappaB and cdc42/rac, thereby reprogramming cellular properties. RAGE is a central cell surface receptor for amphoterin, a polypeptide linked to outgrowth of cultured cortical neurons derived from developing brain. Indeed, the co-localization of RAGE and amphoterin at the leading edge of advancing neurites indicated their potential contribution to cellular migration, and in pathologies such as tumour invasion. Here we demonstrate that blockade of RAGE-amphoterin decreased growth and metastases of both implanted tumours and tumours developing spontaneously in susceptible mice. Inhibition of the RAGE-amphoterin interaction suppressed activation of p44/p42, p38 and SAP/JNK MAP kinases; molecular effector mechanisms importantly linked to tumour proliferation, invasion and expression of matrix metalloproteinases.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2004
                30 September 2004
                : 41
                : 4
                : 293-304
                Department of Pathology, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden
                78927 J Vasc Res 2004;41:293–304
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 102, Pages: 12
                Research Paper


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