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      Influence of time to diagnosis of severe influenza on antibiotic use, length of stay, isolation precautions, and mortality: a retrospective study

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          Timely diagnosis of influenza infection in patients might help reduce antibiotic use during influenza seasons and, consequently, antibiotic selection pressure. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate whether time to influenza diagnosis in patients with severe influenza is associated with the duration of antibiotic therapy.


          We retrospectively included all hospitalized patients >16 years who tested positive for influenza A or B by polymerase chain reaction during influenza seasons 2013/2014 or 2014/2015 at the University Hospital Zurich. The primary aim was to assess the association between timing of laboratory‐confirmed influenza diagnosis and duration of antibiotic therapy. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, duration of isolation precautions, and mortality. Early diagnosis was defined as laboratory confirmation on the day of or the day after hospital admission or symptom onset.


          A total of 126 patients were included (median age 57 years). Timing of influenza diagnosis was not associated with the duration of antibiotic treatment, the duration of isolation precautions, or mortality. Early influenza was associated with reduced length of hospital stay (median 7 vs 9 days [ P=.014]) in patients with community‐acquired influenza.


          Although the duration of antibiotic therapy and mortality were found unaffected by early influenza diagnosis, our data indicate that it is linked with a reduction in the length of hospitalization in patients with community‐acquired influenza. This highlights a need to also fully understand the effect of time to diagnosis of bacterial pathogens on antibiotic prescribing patterns in order to exploit the potential of early influenza diagnosis in patient care.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Clinical signs and symptoms predicting influenza infection.

          New antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of influenza type A and type B infections. In clinical practice, antiviral use has rarely been guided by antecedent laboratory diagnosis. Defined clinical predictors of an influenza infection can help guide timely therapy and avoid unnecessary antibiotic use. To examine which clinical signs and symptoms are most predictive of influenza infection in patients with influenza-like illness using a large data set derived from clinical trials of zanamivir. This analysis is a retrospective, pooled analysis of baseline signs and symptoms from phase 2 and 3 clinical trial participants. It was conducted in mainly unvaccinated (mean age, 35 years) adults and adolescents who had influenza-like illness, defined as having fever or feverishness plus at least 2 of the following influenza-like symptoms: headache, myalgia, cough, or sore throat who underwent laboratory testing for influenza. Clinical signs and symptoms were evaluated in statistical models to identify those best predicting laboratory confirmation of influenza. Of 3744 subjects enrolled with baseline influenza-like symptoms, and included in this analysis, 2470 (66%) were confirmed to have influenza. Individuals with influenza were more likely to have cough (93% vs 80%), fever (68% vs 40%), cough and fever together (64% vs 33%), and/or nasal congestion (91% vs 81%) than those without influenza. The best multivariate predictors of influenza infections were cough and fever with a positive predictive value of 79% (P<. 001). The positive predictive value rose with the increase in the temperature at the time of recruitment. When influenza is circulating within the community, patients with an influenza-like illness who have both cough and fever within 48 hours of symptom onset are likely to have influenza and the administration of influenza antiviral therapy may be appropriate to consider. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:3243-3247.
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            Seasonal influenza in adults and children--diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

            Guidelines for the treatment of persons with influenza virus infection were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The evidence-based guidelines encompass diagnostic issues, treatment and chemoprophylaxis with antiviral medications, and issues related to institutional outbreak management for seasonal (interpandemic) influenza. They are intended for use by physicians in all medical specialties with direct patient care, because influenza virus infection is common in communities during influenza season and may be encountered by practitioners caring for a wide variety of patients.
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              Antiviral therapy and outcomes of influenza requiring hospitalization in Ontario, Canada.

               Altynay Shigayeva,  E Low,   (2007)
              We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the impact of antiviral therapy on outcomes of patients hospitalized with influenza in southern Ontario, Canada. Patients admitted to Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network hospitals with laboratory-confirmed influenza from 1 January 2005 through 31 May 2006 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and medical data were collected by patient and physician interview and chart review. The main outcome evaluated was death within 15 days after symptom onset. Data were available for 512 of 541 eligible patients. There were 185 children (<15 years of age), none of whom died and none of whom were treated with antiviral drugs. The median age of the 327 adults was 77 years (range, 15-98 years), 166 (51%) were male, 245 (75%) had a chronic underlying illness, and 216 (71%) had been vaccinated against influenza. Of the 327 adult patients, 184 (59%) presented to the emergency department within 48 h after symptom onset, 52 (16%) required intensive care unit admission, and 27 (8.3%) died within 15 days after symptom onset. Most patients (292 patients; 89%) received antibacterial therapy; 106 (32%) were prescribed antiviral drugs. Treatment with antiviral drugs active against influenza was associated with a significant reduction in mortality (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.80; n=100, 260). There was no apparent impact of antiviral therapy on length of stay in survivors. There is a significant burden of illness attributable to influenza in this highly vaccinated population. Treatment with antiviral drugs was associated with a significant reduction in mortality.

                Author and article information

                Influenza Other Respir Viruses
                Influenza Other Respir Viruses
                Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                12 May 2017
                July 2017
                : 11
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1111/irv.2017.11.issue-4 )
                : 337-344
                [ 1 ] Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital EpidemiologyUniversity Hospital and University of Zurich ZurichSwitzerland
                [ 2 ] Institute of Medical VirologyUniversity of Zurich ZurichSwitzerland
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Stefan P. Kuster, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

                Email: stefan.kuster@ 123456usz.ch

                © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 8, Words: 6280
                Funded by: Swiss National Science Foundation
                Award ID: 32003B_156902
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                July 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.2 mode:remove_FC converted:27.06.2017

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                antibiotic use, influence of time to diagnosis, influenza


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