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      Copeptin is associated with mortality and outcome in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage

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          Abstract

          Background

          Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for a high mortality and morbidity. Early prediction of outcome is crucial for optimized care and treatment decision. Copeptin, the C-terminal part of provasopressin, has emerged as a new prognostic marker in a variety of diseases, but its prognostic value in ICH is unknown.

          Methods

          In 40 consecutive patients who were admitted to the hospital within 72 hours after a spontaneous ICH, the plasma copeptin level was measured with a sandwich immunoassay upon admission. The prognostic value of copeptin to predict 30 day mortality and functional outcome after 90 days was assessed. A favorable outcome was defined as a Barthel score above 85 and a score below 3 on the Modified Rankin Scale.

          Results

          Copeptin correlated positively with hematoma volume (r = 0.32, p < 0.05) and negatively with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission (r = -0.35, p < 0.05). Copeptin levels were higher in patients who died within 30 days than in 30-day survivors (179.0 pmol/l (IQR 33.7- 566.0) vs. 12.9 pmol/l (IQR 5.2 - 42.8), p = 0.003). Copeptin levels were also higher in patients with an unfavorable functional outcome at 90 days compared to patients with a favorable outcome (32.4 pmol/l (IQR 9.5-97.8) vs. 11.9 pmol/l (IQR 3.2-19.8), p = 0.04). For the prediction of death, receiver-operating-characteristics analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) for copeptin of 0.88 (95%CI 0.75-1.00). The predictive value of the copeptin concentration was thus similar to that of GCS (AUC 0.82 (95%CI 0.59-1.00) p = 0.53), of the ICH Score (AUC 0.89, (95%CI 0.76-1.00), p = 0.94) and the ICH Grading Scale (AUC 0.86 (95%CI 0.69-1.00), p = 0.81).

          Conclusions

          Copeptin is a new prognostic marker in patients with an ICH. If this finding can be confirmed in larger studies, copeptin might be an additional valuable tool for risk stratification and decision-making in the acute phase of ICH.

          Trial Registration

          ( Clinical Trial Registration: ISCTRN00390962)

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          Most cited references 32

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          The ICH score: a simple, reliable grading scale for intracerebral hemorrhage.

          Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) constitutes 10% to 15% of all strokes and remains without a treatment of proven benefit. Despite several existing outcome prediction models for ICH, there is no standard clinical grading scale for ICH analogous to those for traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or ischemic stroke. Records of all patients with acute ICH presenting to the University of California, San Francisco during 1997-1998 were reviewed. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were identified by logistic regression. A risk stratification scale (the ICH Score) was developed with weighting of independent predictors based on strength of association. Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale score (P /=80 years (P=0.001), infratentorial origin of ICH (P=0.03), ICH volume (P=0.047), and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.052). The ICH Score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: GCS score 3 to 4 (=2 points), 5 to 12 (=1), 13 to 15 (=0); age >/=80 years yes (=1), no (=0); infratentorial origin yes (=1), no (=0); ICH volume >/=30 cm(3) (=1), <30 cm(3) (=0); and intraventricular hemorrhage yes (=1), no (=0). All 26 patients with an ICH Score of 0 survived, and all 6 patients with an ICH Score of 5 died. Thirty-day mortality increased steadily with ICH Score (P<0.005). The ICH Score is a simple clinical grading scale that allows risk stratification on presentation with ICH. The use of a scale such as the ICH Score could improve standardization of clinical treatment protocols and clinical research studies in ICH.
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            Cerebral vascular accidents in patients over the age of 60. II. Prognosis.

             J S Rankin (1957)
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              The ABCs of measuring intracerebral hemorrhage volumes.

              Hemorrhage volume is a powerful predictor of 30-day mortality after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We compared a bedside method of measuring CT ICH volume with measurements made by computer-assisted planimetric image analysis. The formula ABC/2 was used, where A is the greatest hemorrhage diameter by CT, B is the diameter 90 degrees to A, and C is the approximate number of CT slices with hemorrhage multiplied by the slice thickness. The ICH volumes for 118 patients were evaluated in a mean of 38 seconds and correlated with planimetric measurements (R2 = 9.6). Interrater and intrarater reliability were excellent, with an intraclass correlation of .99 for both. We conclude that ICH volume can be accurately estimated in less than 1 minute with the simple formula ABC/2.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Neurol
                BMC Neurology
                BioMed Central
                1471-2377
                2010
                26 May 2010
                : 10
                : 34
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [3 ]Department of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [4 ]Department of Anesthesia, Operative Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
                [5 ]Department of Research, BRAHMS Aktiengesellschaft, Biotechnology Centre, Neuendorfstrasse 25,16761 Hennigsdorf, Germany
                [6 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Haus 7, Tellstrasse, 5001 Aarau, Switzerland
                Article
                1471-2377-10-34
                10.1186/1471-2377-10-34
                2889932
                20504314
                Copyright ©2010 Zweifel et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research article

                Neurology

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