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      Secondary Cones of the Shatsky Rise and Implications for Late-Stage Volcanism Atop Oceanic Plateaus

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          Oceanic plateaus are large igneous provinces in the oceans, created by massive underwater eruptions, but their late-stage volcanism is poorly understood. With the addition of recent high-quality bathymetric data to existing data, 286 secondary cones were discovered over Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau. These cones with steeper flank slopes (mean 6.1° ± 4.4°) and smaller sizes (102–1923 m in height) are morphologically distinct from the plateau, and they are thought to have formed after the main volcanic episodes. Cone height and characteristic height (420 m) are close to seamounts in the Pacific Ocean, whereas greater than those in the Atlantic Ocean. Mean flatness of Shatsky Rise’s cones (0.25 ± 0.20) are similar to that of seamounts in both Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, but notably density in cone distribution (0.56 km −3) and their mean slope are significantly lower than those of seamounts in the two oceans. Lower slopes of secondary cones within Shatsky Rise may be explained by higher effusion rates of remaining magma. Although cone formation was expected to have a link to rifting by seafloor spreading, weak relationship between cone orientation and magnetic anomaly pattern implies that the expectation is negative. Moreover, weak correlation between the cone height and depth indicates it is not true that volcanic cones grow taller when they occur closer to the massif summits with thicker oceanic crust, which was suggested as the increase in hydraulic pressure. Cone height and flatness are also not strongly related, implying that remaining magma supply was too limited to foster the cones to critical height.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Hotspots and mantle plumes: Some phenomenology

           Norman Sleep (1990)
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            Flood Basalts and Hot-Spot Tracks: Plume Heads and Tails

            Continental flood basalt eruptions have resulted in sudden and massive accumulations of basaltic lavas in excess of any contemporary volcanic processes. The largest flood basalt events mark the earliest volcanic activity of many major hot spots, which are thought to result from deep mantle plumes. The relative volumes of melt and eruption rates of flood basalts and hot spots as well as their temporal and spatial relations can be explained by a model of mantle plume initiation: Flood basalts represent plume "heads" and hot spots represent continuing magmatism associated with the remaining plume conduit or "tail." Continental rifting is not required, although it commonly follows flood basalt volcanism, and flood basalt provinces may occur as a natural consequence of the initiation of hot-spot activity in ocean basins as well as on continents.
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              Large igneous provinces: Crustal structure, dimensions, and external consequences


                Author and article information

                Journal of Ocean University of China
                Science Press and Springer (China )
                24 August 2019
                01 October 2019
                : 18
                : 5
                : 1115-1122
                1CAS Key Laboratory of Ocean and Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
                2Fourth Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beihai 536007, China
                3South China Sea Institute of Planning and Environmental Research, Ministry of Natural Resources, Guangzhou 510310, China
                4Key Laboratory of Exploration Technologies for Oil and Gas Resources, Ministry of Education, Yangtze University, Wuhan 430100, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding authors: CHEN Jie and HUANG Yanming
                Copyright © Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2019.

                The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is hereby assigned for good and valuable consideration to the editorial office of Journal of Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

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