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      Structure and Expression of a Smooth Muscle Cell-specific Gene, SM22α

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          Most cited references 49

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          Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins.

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            The promoter-specific transcription factor Sp1 binds to upstream sequences in the SV40 early promoter.

            Fractionation of HeLa cell extracts reveals the presence of a promoter-specific transcription factor, Sp 1, which activates a class of promoters that includes the SV40 early promoter but not several others that have been tested. We analyzed SV40 early-promoter deletion mutants and determined that transcriptional activation by Sp 1 requires sequences within tandem 21 bp repeats located 70-110 bp upstream of the transcription initiation sites. In a DNAase footprinting assay, Sp 1 protected sequences in this same 21 bp repeat region, thus indicating the presence of a specific site for Sp 1 binding. During purification of Sp 1, there was a correlation between transcription-stimulatory activity and promoter-binding activity. These results suggest that direct binding of Sp 1 to sequences in the upstream promoter element is the mechanism by which this factor activates transcription by RNA polymerase II at the SV40 early promoter.
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              The mechanics of airway narrowing in asthma.

              This study was designed to determine the potential importance of airway wall thickening in the pathogenesis of the excess airways narrowing of asthma. The airways in postmortem specimens of lung obtained from 18 patients who suffered from asthma were compared to similar airways from 23 patients without asthma. Each airway was projected onto a digitizing board of a microcomputer to trace the internal and external perimeter of the airway and to calculate the submucosal and mucosal thicknesses. The relaxed length of the airway smooth muscle and the shortening required to occlude the airway lumen were calculated. These data show that the wall area was greater (p less than 0.001) in the membranous and cartilaginous airways of asthmatic patients and the airway smooth muscle shortening required to occlude the lumen was less in asthmatic than nonasthmatic airways (p less than 0.001). The increased wall area was due to increased areas of epithelium, muscle, and submucosa. We conclude that the walls of the airways of patients with asthma are thickened by chronic inflammation and that this thickening could be as important as smooth muscle shortening in determining the airway responsiveness of these patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                June 02 1995
                June 02 1995
                June 02 1995
                : 270
                : 22
                : 13460-13469
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.270.22.13460
                © 1995

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