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      Consensus on the standardization of terminology in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and related thrombotic microangiopathies

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          Abstract

          Essentials An international collaboration provides a consensus for clinical definitions. This concerns thrombotic microangiopathies and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The consensus defines diagnosis, disease monitoring and response to treatment. Requirements for ADAMTS-13 are given.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

          The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) should encompass both clinical and laboratory information. The International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system provides objective measurement of DIC. Where DIC is present the scoring system correlates with key clinical observations and outcomes. It is important to repeat the tests to monitor the dynamically changing scenario based on laboratory results and clinical observations. The cornerstone of the treatment of DIC is treatment of the underlying condition. Transfusion of platelets or plasma (components) in patients with DIC should not primarily be based on laboratory results and should in general be reserved for patients who present with bleeding. In patients with DIC and bleeding or at high risk of bleeding (e.g. postoperative patients or patients due to undergo an invasive procedure) and a platelet count of <50 x 10(9)/l transfusion of platelets should be considered. In non-bleeding patients with DIC, prophylactic platelet transfusion is not given unless it is perceived that there is a high risk of bleeding. In bleeding patients with DIC and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) may be useful. It should not be instituted based on laboratory tests alone but should be considered in those with active bleeding and in those requiring an invasive procedure. There is no evidence that infusion of plasma stimulates the ongoing activation of coagulation. If transfusion of FFP is not possible in patients with bleeding because of fluid overload, consider using factor concentrates such as prothrombin complex concentrate, recognising that these will only partially correct the defect because they contain only selected factors, whereas in DIC there is a global deficiency of coagulation factors. Severe hypofibrinogenaemia (<1 g/l) that persists despite FFP replacement may be treated with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate. In cases of DIC where thrombosis predominates, such as arterial or venous thromboembolism, severe purpura fulminans associated with acral ischemia or vascular skin infarction, therapeutic doses of heparin should be considered. In these patients where there is perceived to be a co-existing high risk of bleeding there may be benefits in using continuous infusion unfractionated heparin (UFH) due to its short half-life and reversibility. Weight adjusted doses (e.g. 10 mu/kg/h) may be used without the intention of prolonging the APTT ratio to 1.5-2.5 times the control. Monitoring the APTT in these cases may be complicated and clinical observation for signs of bleeding is important. In critically ill, non-bleeding patients with DIC, prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with prophylactic doses of heparin or low molecular weight heparin is recommended. Consider treating patients with severe sepsis and DIC with recombinant human activated protein C (continuous infusion, 24 microg/kg/h for 4 d). Patients at high risk of bleeding should not be given recombinant human activated protein C. Current manufacturers guidance advises against using this product in patients with platelet counts of <30 x 10(9)/l. In the event of invasive procedures, administration of recombinant human activated protein C should be discontinued shortly before the intervention (elimination half-life approximately 20 min) and may be resumed a few hours later, dependent on the clinical situation. In the absence of further prospective evidence from randomised controlled trials confirming a beneficial effect of antithrombin concentrate on clinically relevant endpoints in patients with DIC and not receiving heparin, administration of antithrombin cannot be recommended. In general, patients with DIC should not be treated with antifibrinolytic agents. Patients with DIC that is characterised by a primary hyperfibrinolytic state and who present with severe bleeding could be treated with lysine analogues, such as tranexamic acid (e.g. 1 g every 8 h).
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            Mutations in a member of the ADAMTS gene family cause thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

            Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening systemic illness of abrupt onset and unknown cause. Proteolysis of the blood-clotting protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) observed in normal plasma is decreased in TTP patients. However, the identity of the responsible protease and its role in the pathophysiology of TTP remain unknown. We performed genome-wide linkage analysis in four pedigrees of humans with congenital TTP and mapped the responsible genetic locus to chromosome 9q34. A predicted gene in the identified interval corresponds to a segment of a much larger transcript, identifying a new member of the ADAMTS family of zinc metalloproteinase genes (ADAMTS13). Analysis of patients' genomic DNA identified 12 mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene, accounting for 14 of the 15 disease alleles studied. We show that deficiency of ADAMTS13 is the molecular mechanism responsible for TTP, and suggest that physiologic proteolysis of VWF and/or other ADAMTS13 substrates is required for normal vascular homeostasis.
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              A phase 2 study of the safety and efficacy of rituximab with plasma exchange in acute acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

              The safety and efficacy of weekly rituximab 375 mg/m(2) (×4), given within 3 days of acute TTP admission, with standard therapy (PEX and steroids) was evaluated. Clinical outcomes were compared to historical controls (n = 40) who had not received rituximab. Within the trial group, 15 of 40 required ICU admission and 15% of all cases with the highest troponin T levels on admission were ventilated. Before the second rituximab infusion, 68% of cases had a platelet count > 50 × 10(9)/L and 38% > 150 × 10(9)/L. Fewer PEX were required in whites compared to nonwhite in the rituximab group (mean 14 vs 21, P = .0095). Inpatient stay was reduced by 7 days in the non-ICU trial cases compared to historical controls (P = .04), especially in whites, with a mean reduction of 7 days (P = .05). Ten percent of trial cases relapsed, median, 27 months (17-31 months), compared to 57% in historical controls, median 18 months (3-60 months; P = .0011). There were no excess infections or serious adverse events with rituximab. In conclusion, rituximab appears a safe and effective therapy. Inpatient stay and relapse are significantly reduced in the rituximab cohort. Rituximab should be considered in conjunction with standard therapy on acute presentation of TTP. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT009-3713.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
                J Thromb Haemost
                Wiley
                1538-7933
                1538-7836
                February 07 2017
                February 2017
                January 30 2017
                February 2017
                : 15
                : 2
                : 312-322
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Haematology UCLH Cardiometabolic programme‐NIHR UCLH/UCL BRC London UK
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine Ohio State University Hospital Columbus OH USA
                [3 ]Department of Hematology Saint‐Antoine University Hospital Paris France
                [4 ]Department of Hematology University Hospital Dr Peset Valencia Spain
                [5 ]Division of Benign Hematology Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee WI USA
                [6 ]Department of Hematology Bern University Hospital Bern Switzerland
                [7 ]Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis University Medical Center Mainz Germany
                [8 ]Department of Blood Transfusion Medicine Nara Medical University Nara Japan
                [9 ]Department of Laboratory medicine St Michael's Hospital/Research Institute Toronto Ontario Canada
                [10 ]Department of Hematology Washington University School of Medicine St Louis MO USA
                [11 ]Department of Pathology UT Southwestern Medical Center Dallas TX USA
                [12 ]Department of Pathology Ohio State University Hospital Columbus OH USA
                Article
                10.1111/jth.13571
                27868334
                © 2017

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