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Regional differentiation and post-glacial expansion of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, an annual fish with high dispersal potential

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      Abstract

      The coastal marine environment of the Northwest Atlantic contains strong environmental gradients that create distinct marine biogeographic provinces by limiting dispersal, recruitment, and survival. This region has also been subjected to numerous Pleistocene glacial cycles, resulting in repeated extirpations and recolonizations in northern populations of marine organisms. In this study, we examined patterns of genetic structure and historical demography in the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, an annual marine fish with high dispersal potential but with well-documented patterns of clinal phenotypic adaptation along the environmental gradients of the Northwest Atlantic. Contrary to previous studies indicating genetic homogeneity that should preclude regional adaptation, results demonstrate subtle but significant (FST = 0.07; P < 0.0001) genetic structure among three phylogeographic regions that partially correspond with biogeographic provinces, suggesting regional limits to gene flow. Tests for non-equilibrium population dynamics and latitudinal patterns in genetic diversity indicate northward population expansion from a single southern refugium following the last glacial maximum, suggesting that phylogeographic and phenotypic patterns have relatively recent origins. The recovery of phylogeographic structure and the partial correspondence of these regions to recognized biogeographic provinces suggest that the environmental gradients that shape biogeographic patterns in the Northwest Atlantic may also limit gene flow in M. menidia, creating phylogeographic structure and contributing to the creation of latitudinal phenotypic clines in this species.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00227-010-1577-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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      Analyzing Tables of Statistical Tests

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        Arlequin (version 3.0): An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis

        Arlequin ver 3.0 is a software package integrating several basic and advanced methods for population genetics data analysis, like the computation of standard genetic diversity indices, the estimation of allele and haplotype frequencies, tests of departure from linkage equilibrium, departure from selective neutrality and demographic equilibrium, estimation or parameters from past population expansions, and thorough analyses of population subdivision under the AMOVA framework. Arlequin 3 introduces a completely new graphical interface written in C++, a more robust semantic analysis of input files, and two new methods: a Bayesian estimation of gametic phase from multi-locus genotypes, and an estimation of the parameters of an instantaneous spatial expansion from DNA sequence polymorphism. Arlequin can handle several data types like DNA sequences, microsatellite data, or standard multi-locus genotypes. A Windows version of the software is freely available on http://cmpg.unibe.ch/software/arlequin3.
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          Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection.

           X Fu (1997)
          The main purpose of this article is to present several new statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against a class of alternative models, under which DNA polymorphisms tend to exhibit excesses of rare alleles or young mutations. Another purpose is to study the powers of existing and newly developed tests and to examine the detailed pattern of polymorphisms under population growth, genetic hitchhiking and background selection. It is found that the polymorphic patterns in a DNA sample under logistic population growth and genetic hitchhiking are very similar and that one of the newly developed tests, Fs, is considerably more powerful than existing tests for rejecting the hypothesis of neutrality of mutations. Background selection gives rise to quite different polymorphic patterns than does logistic population growth or genetic hitchhiking, although all of them show excesses of rare alleles or young mutations. We show that Fu and Li's tests are among the most powerful tests against background selection. Implications of these results are discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Institute for Resource, Environment and Sustainability, Aquatic Ecosystem Research Laboratories, University of British Columbia, 429-2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 Canada
            [ ]Department of Biology, Boston University, 5 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 USA
            [ ]School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 USA
            [ ]Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Los Angeles, 621 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90045 USA
            Author notes

            Communicated by C. Riginos.

            Contributors
            +604-822-9250 , mach5@interchange.ubc.ca
            Journal
            Mar Biol
            Mar. Biol
            Marine Biology
            Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            0025-3162
            1432-1793
            23 November 2010
            23 November 2010
            2011
            : 158
            : 515-530
            3873031
            1577
            10.1007/s00227-010-1577-3
            © The Author(s) 2010
            Categories
            Original Paper
            Custom metadata
            © Springer-Verlag 2011

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