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      Long-term beta-blockade in dilated cardiomyopathy. Effects of short- and long-term metoprolol treatment followed by withdrawal and readministration of metoprolol.

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1

      Circulation

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of beta-adrenergic blockade (metoprolol) as well as the reaction to withdrawal and readministration of metoprolol in severe heart failure, 33 patients (25 men and eight women; mean age, 47.6 +/- 14.0 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy were studied by right and left heart catheterization, right ventricular biopsy, two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, and external pulse recordings. Twenty-six of 33 patients survived more than 6 months, and 24 of the 26 patients improved their functional class (from mean 3.3 to 1.8, p less than 0.0001). These 24 patients were subjected to withdrawal of metoprolol until the number of symptoms increased and deterioration occurred as observed noninvasively (group 1, n = 16), whereas the eight patients did not deteriorate during a 12-month period (group 2). During long-term treatment with metoprolol, there was an increase in ejection fraction from 0.24 to 0.42 (p less than 0.0001), whereas there was a decrease in the left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimension (from 7.3 to 6.4 cm, p less than 0.0001), in the grade of mitral regurgitation (from 1.7 to 0.4, p less than 0.0001), and in the grade of tricuspid regurgitation (from 0.6 to 0.05, p less than 0.007). There was a decrease in pulmonary wedge pressure (from 23.8 to 10.7 mm Hg, p less than 0.0001), LV end-diastolic pressure (from 24.1 to 13.4 mm Hg, p less than 0.002), and systolic vascular resistance (from 1,782 to 1,499 dynes/sec/cm, p less than 0.04). There was an increase in systolic blood pressure (from 116 to 132 mm Hg, p less than 0.003), cardiac index (from 2.17 to 2.58 l/min/m2, p less than 0.005), and LV stroke work index (from 31 to 65 g.m/m2, p less than 0.0001). During withdrawal of metoprolol, the heart rate and left atrial dimension increased (p less than 0.0001), whereas ejection fraction decreased (p less than 0.0001). The 12 (of 16) patients in group 1 who survived the withdrawal period had metoprolol readministered, and subsequently, ejection fraction increased (from 0.23 to 0.33, p less than 0.002). Patients had a low number of ventricular beta-adrenergic receptors compared with healthy control subjects (30.3 +/- 2.9 vs. 97.4 +/- 8.7 fmol/mg protein, p less than 0.001), but long-term treatment with metoprolol caused a moderate up-regulation (from 30.3 +/- 2.9 to 49.0 +/- 7.1 fmol/mg protein, p less than 0.05), which may facilitate a more normal response to sympathetic stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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          Most cited references 27

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          Decreased catecholamine sensitivity and beta-adrenergic-receptor density in failing human hearts.

          To identify the role of the myocardial beta-adrenergic pathway in congestive heart failure, we examined beta-adrenergic-receptor density, adenylate cyclase and creatine kinase activities, muscle contraction in vitro, and myocardial contractile protein levels in the left ventricles of failing and normally functioning hearts from cardiac-transplant recipients or prospective donors. Eleven failing left ventricles had a 50 to 56 per cent reduction in beta-receptor density, a 45 per cent reduction in maximal isoproterenol-mediated adenylate cyclase stimulation, and a 54 to 73 per cent reduction in maximal isoproterenol-stimulated muscle contraction, as compared with six normally functioning ventricles (P less than 0.05 for each comparison). In contrast, cytoplasmic creatine kinase activity, adenylate cyclase activities stimulated by fluoride ion and by histamine, histamine-stimulated muscle contraction, and levels of contractile protein were not different in the two groups (P less than 0.05). We conclude that in failing human hearts a decrease in beta-receptor density leads to subsensitivity of the beta-adrenergic pathway and decreased beta-agonist-stimulated muscle contraction. Regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors may be an important variable in cardiac failure.
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            Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic-receptor subpopulations in nonfailing and failing human ventricular myocardium: coupling of both receptor subtypes to muscle contraction and selective beta 1-receptor down-regulation in heart failure.

            We used radioligand binding techniques and measurement of beta-agonist-mediated positive inotropic responses in isolated cardiac tissue to examine beta-adrenergic-receptor subpopulations in nonfailing and failing human left and right ventricular myocardium. In tissue derived from 48 human hearts the receptor subtypes identified in nonfailing ventricle by radioligand binding were beta 1 (77%) and beta 2 (23%), with no evidence of an "atypical" beta-adrenergic receptor. In failing left ventricle the beta 1:beta 2 ratio was markedly different, i.e., 60:38. This decrease in the beta 1 proportion and increase in the beta 2 proportion in the failing ventricles were due to a 62%, "selective" down-regulation of the beta 1 subpopulation, with little or no change in beta 2 receptors. In muscle bath experiments in isolated trabeculae derived from nonfailing and failing right ventricles, both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors were coupled to a positive inotropic response. In nonfailing myocardium, beta 1 responses predominated, as the selective beta 1 agonist denopamine produced a response that was 66% of the total contractile response of isoproterenol. In heart failure the beta 1 component was markedly decreased, while the beta 2 component was not significantly diminished. Moreover, in heart failure the beta 2 component increased in prominence, as the contractile response to the selective beta 2 agonist zinterol increased from a minority (39%) to a majority (60%) of the total response generated by isoproterenol. We conclude that failing human ventricular myocardium contains a relatively high proportion of beta 2 receptors, due to selective down-regulation of beta 1 receptors. As a result, in the failing human heart the beta 2-receptor subpopulation is a relatively important mediator of inotropic support in response to nonselective beta-agonist stimulation and is available for inotropic stimulation by selective beta 2 agonists.
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              Timolol-induced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction.

              (1981)
              A multicenter double-blind randomized study was carried out to compare the effect of timolol (10 mg twice daily) with that of placebo in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction. Treatment was started seven to 28 days after infarction in 1884 patients (945 taking timolol, and 939 placebo), who represented 52 per cent of those evaluated for entry; the patients were followed for 12 to 33 months (mean, 17). There were 152 deaths in the placebo group and 98 in the timolol group. When deaths that occurred during treatment or within 28 days of withdrawal were considered, the cumulated sudden-death rate over 33 months was 13.9 per cent in the placebo group and 7.7 per cent in the timolol group--a reduction of 44.6 per cent (P = 0.0001). The cumulated reinfarction rate was 20.1 per cent in the placebo group and 14.4 per cent in the timolol group (P = 0.0006). We conclude that long-term treatment with timolol in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction reduces mortality and the rate of reinfarction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                September 1989
                September 1989
                : 80
                : 3
                : 551-563
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine I, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.80.3.551
                2548768
                © 1989

                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

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